1.1Literature Review

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1.1.1Power Transmission

Kota Bharu Medical Centre, also known
as KBMC, is locateded in Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, Taman Aman, 15200 Kota
Bharu, Kelantan. It is the first Private Specialist
Hospital in Kelantan. It provides in-house specialists services for patients
with medical conditions and also out-patient for mild discomfort.

                 Therefore, the building itself are
depending on the electricity the hospital instruments cannot function without
electricity. Electricity is very important to a hospital. Without electricity,
hospital cannot function and it may miss the chance to help a patient.
Electricity in the building mostly for lighting, air conditioning, elevators,
fire system and hospital instruments. Various power station produced high
current electricity such as Tenaga National
Berhad. The conveyance of electrical power from a station to consumers’
premises is known as electrical supply system. An electrical supply system
consists of three principal components which is the power station (generation
system), the transmission lines and the distribution system.

Figure1.1: Basic
Structure of the Electrical System for the Generating System,
Transmission Lines and Distribution system.
(Source: http://www2.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ458/tesfatsion/Home458Team.htm)


                Electricity generation is the first
process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The electricity is
generated at a power station by electromechanical engines fuels by chemical
combustion and also other kinetic energy such as flowing water. These are the
two types of energy which we can see in Malaysia. Other energy source include
geothermal power. One of the generation system is water turbine. The way of
water turning to electrical energy is the flowing water will directed on the
blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades and pushing it to spin. When the turbine is spinning, the force
acts through a distance (force acting through a distance is the definition of
work). This is the way that turn water to energy with the turbine. The
electrical energy transfer by the transmission line or Electric-power
Transmission system from the generating power plants to the substations of
electricity to the located near demand centers. This is different from the
local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically
referred to as electric power distribution. Transmission lines, when
interconnected with each other, become transmission networks. The combined
transmission and distribution network is known as the “power grid”. Most of the
lines are suing high-voltage three-phase alternating current (AC). High-voltage
direct-current (HVDC) technology is used for greater efficiency in very long
distances (hundreds of kilometres) or in submarine power cables (longer than 50
km). Electricity distribution is the last stage in the delivery of electricity.
A distribution system’s network carries electricity form the transmission
system to the customers. Normally, the network include medium-voltage
(2kv-34.5kv) power lines, substations ad pole-mounted transformers,
low-voltage(less than 1kv) distribution wiring and sometimes meters.


1.1.2 Electrical

supply system is divided into two types, the off-site power system and the on-
site power system. The on-site power system contains normal power sources such
as transformers, auxiliary power supply, cables and emergency power supply (generator).
The power consists of the grid, generators, and transmission and distribution
systems. Power used on-site can be generated on-site, rather than imported from
distribution grids, often more cost-effectively and with the added advantages
of avoiding distribution losses and offering a measure of energy independence. On-site
generation can provide an essential redundancy to power provided by the local
electric utility. Almost all of the current operators of cogeneration plants
can get their power from the local electric utility if needed. This provides a
dual source of energy, as they have power available when their systems are down
(say for occasional maintenance) or when there is a failure of the local
electric utility. This redundancy in turn can provide for health and safety,
industrial process continuity or significant protection from computer and
information technology upset, resulting in significant cost savings.


                      Electrical supply from
TNB is firstly distributed to the high voltage (HV) room of a building. Lower
voltage (LV) room then receives electrical supply from HV room and transmits
electricity to riser on each floor of a building. The risers then distribute electrical
supply throughout the floors. Generator rooms can only be found in private
buildings which acts as an emergency power system. Newly developed buildings
adapts the Building Automatic System (BAS). It monitors and controls facilities
through a centralized system, such as lighting, air handing units, switchboards
and CCTV.


Electricity is distributed by several devices throughout the building.
Measurement of electricity usage is done by meters, usually in kilowatt per
hour. Safety devices such as fuses and circuit breakers are used to prevent
fire or damage of devices due to over usage of electricity. Fuses have a
disadvantage where it operates once and must be replaced, unlike circuit breakers
where it can be rete to function normally. Circuit breakers functions both as a
protective device as well as a switch. It allows electricity to pass through,
while ensuring to break the circuit when overloaded or short circuit. They are
various types of circuit breakers to cater for different needs.


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