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TIPS & EXPERT ADVICE ON ESSAYS, PAPERS & COLLEGE APPLICATIONS

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The history of Village/Street local
government started during 1970’s when First Government established
Decentralisation policy which focus on transfer of authority at lower level in
order to enable the community to participate effectively on matters affecting
them (Masoi & Norman, 2009).

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The existence of local government
authority and how local Government authority governed in Tanzania mentioned in
the Constitution of United Republic of Tanzania, 1977 AND United Republic of
Tanzania Local Government Urban Authority Act, 1982.

 

2.0       THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK GUIDING STREET STRUCTURE AND GOVERNANCE

Detailed theoretical framework will
be part of this section whereby different theories that explained about
village/street (local level government) Structure and Governance will be
referred. Some of these theories includes; Participation theory, Decision making
theory, Decentralisation theory and Wheel of participation approach.

 

2.1       Wheel of Participation
Approach

This type of approach has been
useful by different organizations/institution/countries desire to present
options for community engagement or participation. According to the paper
published by Davidson’s, 1998, the wheel approach emphasizes on four main
points participation namely; engagement, information, consultation,
participation and empowerment with ordered structure or ranks. There are other scholars who supported that
engaging community in policy making allows governments to tap wider sources of
information, perspectives, and potential solutions, and improves the quality of
the decisions reached. It also contributes to building public trust in
government, raising the quality of democracy, and strengthening civic capacity
(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2001). Some scholars are in view that community engagement is expected to increase democratic legitimacy,
narrow the gap between community and Government, enlarge the problem solving
capacity, increase the support for policy, and improve the quality of policy
(Edelenbos J, 2000).

 

2.2       Participation theory

The theory originated from Path-Goal Theory of
Leadership as proposed by (Robert & Mitchell, 1975). The theory emphasizes
on ownership aspect whereby leader consulted followers by; solicits
their suggestions and takes these suggestions seriously into consideration
before making a final decision. The implication of this theory especially to
most of African countries which dominated by leaders who did not adhere to the
principle of rule of law and good governance it is difficult to observed. There
is the need to formulate proper structure that will allow transfer of some
authority to lower level

 

2.3       Theory Decentralization
and Local Government

Decentralization
approach a much linked with governance, this approach gain momentum for the
purpose of granting authority to local level on what to decide the matters
affecting them. After establishment of Decentralization Policy in 1972, the
approach come effectively by Tanzania Government in 1990’s after established
Decentralization by Devolution which demanding involvement of the people
directly or through their democratically elected representatives (Masoi & Norman, 2009).

 

2.4       Decision Making Theory

This the core theory in public
participation which insist on ensuring every member in the community who
affected in the decision should part and parcel on the all process of
generating such decision. According to Hummel (2001), this theory emphasized on
having good structure for decision making by ensuring requirement of
stakeholders a taking into consideration by grating all source of power to do
so.

 

3.0       GOVERNANCE
STRUCTURE AT VILLAGE/MTAA LEVEL

Operating activities in Local
Government focus on the system’s wise where governance and performance are
combined together with permanent principles. The legal existence of governance
structure at Mtaa/Street level was provided in Constitution of United Republic
of Tanzania, 1977 Article 145 (1) and (2) which state that;

 

(1)       There shall be established local government
authorities in each region, district, urban area and village in the United
Republic, which shall be of the type and designation prescribed by law to be
enacted by Parliament or by the House of Representatives.

(2)       Parliament or the House of Representatives, as
the case may be, shall enact a law providing for the establishment of local
government authorities, their structure and composition, sources of revenue and
procedure for the conduct of their business.

 

The constitution also in Article 146 shows functions of local government at
lower level which state that.

The purpose of having local government
authorities is to transfer authority to the people. Local government
authorities shall have the right and power to participate, and to involve the
people, in the planning and implementation of development programmes within
their respective areas and generally throughout the country.

 

For the purpose of feeling sense of ownership,
the government structure at street level dominated by local people whom leaders
selected among them, and all community at street level have full mandatory of
executing their issues accordingly. According to the local
government establishment Acts Nos. 8 and 7 of 198214 (1) – (5) and 22 (1) – (3), Local Government Authorities have
been given various legal powers to enable them to carry out its mandate
properly which done through Mtaa/Street Assembly (includes all Street Residents
at the age of 18 years old and with sound mind), Mtaa/Street Chairman and
Mtaa/Street Committee consisting of six members. Chairperson who
is elected by the residents assisted by members of mtaa/street committees. For this governance structure at
street level; legally, Mtaa/Street Assembly is the highest organ body at the
mtaa/street level with all control over matters affecting the community at
mtaa/street level e.g. Planning, formulation and approval of by-laws and
policies.

 

4.0       CITIZENS
PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING

This part indicates the
participation of citizens in all cross-cutting initiatives that affect the
citizen within street level, according to available structure, the
participation of citizens is through their selected leaders via street
assembly. Njunwa (2005) in his paper suggested that, there is should be proper
and relevant structure whereby all members in the society have a room to
participate in decision making.

 

One of the clear obstacle in
running street level administration is poor adherence of street members to
participate in different activities in the street. According to the
conversation made with one of the Street Member Committee of Mpakani “A” street
committee said that,

 

“there is low morale for citizens to participate in
street assembly because sometime attendance of citizen participation in the
meeting is very few”.

 

Data collector went further to
know what is the extract problems which cause low response from street member
on matters regarding them, study revealed that; almost 50% of street members
are not permanent residents in that area hence this hinder smooth running of
the office due to inflow and outflow of new-comers.

 

Kaminyoge (2008) in his study at Mbarali
District Councils found that community participation in Village assembly is
very low though it is statutory meeting. He went further by pointed out the
challenges which cause that to happen which include; inadequate awareness of
the important of the village meetings/assembly, financial constraints for
running the meeting and absence of strict village by-laws was the major causes
for poor community participation in decision making.

 

(Simon, 2014; Irvin and
Stansbury, 2004) argued
that, Government should apply seriously mechanism on enhancing participation in
decision making and citizens are well involved. Street leaders suppose to make
effort on awareness campaign on important of street member to participate in
street assembly.

 

5.0       MECHANISMS
APPLIED TO HOLD LEADERS INTO ACCOUNT

United Republic of Tanzania Local
Government Urban Authority Act No. 7 and 8 of 1982 provides autonomous to
street level in managing all local matters affecting the area in a more
transparent and democratic manner by enriching accountability to the people
they are supposed to serve. This is to say Street assembly is the special forum
can be used to hold leaders accountable

 

In accordance with the Local
Government Act 287 and 288, Local Government Authorities have been given
various legal powers to enable them to fulfil their responsibilities
accordingly but community at local level they posses a final decision through
street assembly where they can make rules and regulation that can force their
leader to be accountable. Such areas to make leaders accountable can be inform
of;

a.         
Making
by-laws or undergo some amendments to the existing one

b.        
Collective
decision making through mtaa/street assembly which that final decision can be
submitted to Ward Committee for further actions.

c.         
To
remove unethical leaders, this can be a sign of seriousness of citizens toward
leaders

d.        
Allowing
forums for discussion with respect to all views provided by members

 

Accountability at grassroots level enhanced in
the ways community participate in decision making. Killian (2008) proclaims
that, demand for accountability occurs once local peoples participate effectively
in the preparation of agreed objectives and they know the final decision which
every one should committed on it.

 

6.0       THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF STREET ASSEMBLY

Looking on positive outcome of
Mtaa/Steet Assembly meeting and leader’s capability on solving citizen’s
development problems are the major issue which make those street meeting to be
useless. One of the member in Mpakani “A” respond that;

 

 “there
is no any changes toward what leaders promised during the meeting, still a lot
of bole hole with dirty water and still we have rough roads and also security
is unstable”

 

Due to the conversation made by few
members of Mpakani “A” street and the existence of laws and policies and procedure,
this paper revealed that. The street assembly at Mpakani “A” is not effective
due to the following reasons;

 

·            
Attendance
not conversing to run street assembly effective

·            
Low
civic awareness for both leaders and street members

·            
Absence
of proper time table and agenda for street assembly

·            
Presence
of conflict of interest concerning priorities of the street

 

 

7.0       FINDING AND RECOMMENDATION

This part provides recommendation
and suggestion of what next to be done to improve or maintain governance at
Mpakani “A” Street – Kijitonyama based on shortly conversation with some few members
of Mpakani “A” Street and literature mentioned above.

 

v  Adherence of rules, regulation and
by-laws that governed the running procedure of government at street level
instead of few group of peoples making a final decision of what to implement,
street member should be informed and participate on prioritize which activity
suppose to be first to implement.

 

v  Awareness campaign/seminars should
be applied to educate peoples on procedure on how to make street leaders and
other committee members accountable. Researcher observed many street members
they don’t understand where to start on demanding responsibility and
accountability from their leaders  

 

v  Time table and agenda for the next
street assembly meeting should available outside of the notice board of Street
Government office and if possible chairperson and the committee should take
extra effort to visit one house after another announcing concerning the
up-coming meeting, by doing so the attendance will increase and members will be
aware of what is going to be discussed (agenda) in the meeting hence they can
prepare to provide views accordingly.

 

v  Separation of political ideology in
performing daily activities of the street government. Using government premises
for running political activities. Leaders should stop allowing political party
to perform their activities in street government office because other peoples
may be confusing.

 

8.0       CONCLUSION

Generally, community participation
especially in decision making at lower level still a cornerstone on adherence
the practice of good governance. Sense of ownership automatically stimulate
fast growing of economic development and well-being of the people. The
government should set a side mechanism of making sure all local leaders at
street level performing their duties accordingly to rule of laws instead taking
administration for private gain

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