1. Introduction

is considered that HIV/AIDS is one of the most serious problems in today’s
modern world which has killed many people. In accordance with Article 2, the
Law on Prevention and Control of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Syndrome
(HIV/AIDS), HIV is an abbreviation of English words “Human Immune-Deficiency
Virus”, a virus which reduces the resistance of the body against the causes of
diseases. AIDS is an abbreviation of English words “Acquired Immune-Deficiency
Syndrome”. AIDS is caused by HIV, usually devastated with opportunistic
infections, cancers and most likely leads to death unless treatment is
appropriately provided.  Many people have
been killed by this virus that it is considered to be a pandemic. Many places
have been destroyed like the North America, Africa, Latin America, and parts of
Asia, including Vietnam. According to a report of the Department of HIV/AIDS in
Vietnam, Ministry of Health, about 9,800 new HIV infections and 1,900
HIV-infected people were reported to die in 2017. Comparing to the year 2016,
this figure for HIV cases decreased by 11%, the number of AIDS patients reduced
by 39%, and the mortality rate of HIV infection dropped by 10%. Overall, the
year 2017 has witnessed a considerably decrease in all three criteria: the
number of new HIV infections, the number of people turning to the AIDS stage,
and the number of deaths due to AIDS. Although the Vietnam government has made
enormous efforts to reduce HIV infections, the HIV epidemic in Vietnam still
contains many risk factors to outbreak. This research paper is written to
discuss some main challenges and solutions in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

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2. Discussion of findings

2.1. What are challenges in the
fight against HIV/AIDS?

cases of HIV/AIDS infections have decreased, enormous challenges still remain
that must be dealt with.

of all, too few people with HIV are aware of their infection themselves. Because
many new infections are transmitted by people who do not know they are

infection remains a significant factor fueling the HIV epidemic. HIV
testing has never been quicker or easier than it is today, and more people have
been tested than ever before. But fear and misperceptions can still keep people
from finding out their HIV status. For example, many people, even those who
engage in high-risk behavior, do not get tested because they do not believe they
are at risk for HIV infection; others misunderstand the testing process, not
realizing that rapid HIV tests can be done with a simple check swab or finger
prick and provided results in as little as 20 minutes; some
people are concerned that other people will find out that they have tested
positive (or that they sought testing at all), although testing is completely
confidential; some people may avoid testing simply because they are afraid
their test is positive.

disgrace against HIV/AIDS patients presents another major challenge to prevent
HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS patients are treated unequally in hospitals and denied
employment. Children with HIV do not have opportunity to go to school. In 2009,
children with HIV were expelled from the school by parents in Ho Chi Minh City
forcing officials. The lack of knowledge about the disease and the rights of
people and HIV/AIDS patients’ behavior not accepted by people’s prejudices are
the main causes of the discrimination mentioned above. This discourages people
with HIV to go for screening and or to take medication in fear of revealing
their HIV status.

people not receiving ongoing treatment and prevention information and tools is also
one of the main reasons increasing HIV/AIDS infections. If people living with
HIV receive ongoing care and treatment, it is one of the most effective ways to
protect their health and prevent the further spread of HIV. Moreover if people
with HIV treated, it also lowers the amount of virus in their body and can
dramatically reduce their risk of transmitting HIV to others. However, diverse
populations, including gay and bisexual men of all races, ethnicities – particularly
those who are young, transgender women and more people than ever before living
with HIV, cannot access accurate prevention information and effective
prevention tools because accessing to care and treatment services is still

it is human resource problem which is one of the constituent parts of the HIV
prevention. It ensures available service, service coverage, and quality of
service in Viet Nam. However, the limitations on the quantity and quality of human
resources have hindered to invent new treatments. HIV / AIDS prevention
programs lack the possible conditions to attract and retain qualified
employees. Therefore, Vietnam has, in the past decade, mobilized substantial
support from donors to directly increase and expand human resources in the HIV-
related services delivery system.

enormously costly treatment is what the poor HIV patients must face. For
example, an estimated cost for a HIV patient cured by Anti-retrovaral (ARV), a
drug designed to reduce the proliferation of HIV virus in the body, is about
10,000 VND/day. However, for most HIV patients in poor circumstances,
the payment of 300,000 VND/month for ARV drugs is too large. In case of lack of
ARV, the risk of transmittance of people carrying the disease to the community
is extremely high. The HIV patient not receiving ongoing ARV treatment will
die, or become resistant to treatment, making the treatment process more
difficult and costly.

2.2 What are solutions in fight
against HIV/AIDS?

most common transmission routes are through blood-to-blood contract with an
infected person, unprotected sexual contact with an infected person, the use of
contaminated hypodermic needles in illegal drug use, and contact between mother
and her child during pregnancy. According to Cure Joy Editorial, therefore, there
are things for individual and the government can do to protect themselves from
this dangerous infection.

is important for individual to protect themselves from infecting HIV/AIDS. If
everyone knows ways to prevent HIV/AIDS, the case of HIV/AIDS infections can
significantly decline.

practicing safe sex is one of the most effective ways to prevent HIV/AIDS.  People can use condoms which help to avoid
transmitting HIV while having sex. Moreover, it is important that both partners
get tested for HIV before starting having sex. In addition, it is necessary to
limit sexual partners. Having more sexual partners might increase the risk of
getting infected with HIV. So being in a mutually monogamous
relationship with someone without HIV is the safest way.

people should not share needles with anybody because this epidemic is
transmitted through blood-to-blood. Sharing needles or other injection
equipment can put them at significant risk of getting HIV. Therefore it
always makes sure that needles and other equipment for injections are new and

by taking preventive medication, people can lessen the risk of HIV infection.
anyone has a high risk for HIV, for instance, someone being in a sexual
relationship with others who is HIV positive, they can take medication known as
pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. This preventive measure requires
daily medication and regular doctor visits.

people should avoid risky behaviors HIV such as abusing
drugs or alcohol, engaging in sex without a condom or sharing injection
equipment. Certain behaviors may increase a high risk of getting HIV.

Finally, women should notice to treat
for HIV during pregnancy. If being pregnant, they should get
tested for HIV. If having HIV, they should take the appropriate medicines religiously can greatly
lower the risk of transmitting it to their baby. In fact, if starting
treatment early enough, they can reduce the risk to about 1% or lower. Moreover breast milk contains
HIV. So if having HIV, women can avoid transmitting it to their baby after
delivery by not breastfeeding.

the individual efforts are not enough. The Vietnamese government should help
them by proposing some solutions to reduce HIV infection.

prevent the spread of HIV, it is necessary for the Vietnam government to
develop guidelines for healthcare providers on testing and medical caring,
educate healthcare providers and the public about the importance of HIV testing
and medical care.

addition, the Vietnam government can also identify and track differences in medical
care, illness, and death among different groups of people and help meet the
goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, including getting all people with HIV
into care.

state and local health departments can fund programs that support effective HIV
prevention services and medical care, create programs and policies to test
people at risk for HIV early and often, provide information about where people
can get an HIV test, and educate people about the benefits of HIV testing,
regular care, and treatment.

but not least, state and local health departments can also help people who have
HIV connected to HIV with medical care, promote HIV prevention counseling and
services as a regular part of care, support community actions to prevent new
HIV infections and help people with HIV.


research aims to analyse challenges and solutions in the fight against HIV/AIDS
epidemic in Vietnam. Although the number of people being infected with HIV has
decreased considerably, it still remains a cause of concern with thousands of
new cases being diagnosed every year. Anyone can also be infected easily; thus,
it is important to educate people ways to protect themselves from infecting
HIV/AIDS. Obviously, this measure will only be successful if it has a close
cooperation between individuals and the government, which will bring a better
and safer life and future for everyone.

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