Use of pesticides and insecticides in agriculture has polluted the underground water as well as water in rivers, lakes and ponds. Deforestation has caused soil erosion as well as climatic changes which have resulted in imbalances in the rainfall pattern and calamities like floods, tsunamis, droughts and landslides.
1. Common impurities present in water:
Both suspended impurities and dissolved impurities are found in water. Suspended impurities include bacteria, viruses, algae, protozoa and fungi. Dissolved impurities include chemicals (from industrial wastes and from pesticides used in agriculture), salts from the soil and dissolved metals.
2. Monitoring water quality:
The Central Pollution Control Board of India has formulated guidelines to check the quality of water. Samples of water are collected from different regions and then analyzed. Based on the report of the analysis, appropriate quality control of water is carried out in that area.
Monitoring of water quality is of great importance to health of human beings and all living organisms. Since water is a precious resource, people should be made aware of need for efficient use of water, and government schemes should ensure the sustainability of water resources.