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Gastrulation is the formation of the germ layers Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and Endoderm. During this process, the cell reorganises to change from a simple blastula to a multi-layered organism, with the cells moving to a more interior location of the cell. Neurulation is the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube (Larsen, Sherman and Potter, 2001). Both these processes work collaboratively to aid the initial formation of the nervous system. The progenitor cells of the neural tube are known as neural precursor cells. These precursors are dividing stem cells that produce more precursors and, eventually (Quizlet.com, 2018), non-dividing neuroblasts that differentiate into neurons (Purves et al., 2001).

As a result of their proximity to the notochord, the cells at the ventral midline of the neural tube differentiate into a special strip of epithelial-like cells called the floor plate (Purves et al., 2001). The close proximity allows more signals to be sent, more efficiently. Once the nervous system and brain have been developed, they can speed up the overall developmental process.

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