this chapter, research design, respondents involved, sampling technique of this
study, instrument used, and procedure will be further discuss to provide a
clearer structure of the methods and approaches choose to run this study.
design are approaches and methods that has been used to provide specific
direction for a research procedures (Creswell, 2014). A quantitative non-experimental design
is conducted to study the correlation between variables and measure the degree
or association among them. The purpose is to examine the relationship between
emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and psychological well-being. All of the
students from FSAH will be examine without any bias to study the wellness of
students associating with different levels of variables given.
numbers of undergraduates from Tunku Abdul Rahman University College are needed
to complete this study. The samples of this study contains of students from
Bachelor Degree in Psychology building up of 60 males and 60 females with range
of age from 20 to 25 years old.
This study are designed to obtain
data from respondents to determine the relationship between the independent and
dependent variables. Convenient sampling is used to collect data during the
research at one point of time. This nonprobability sampling collect data in an
easy accessible, strategic location, and willingness of participants to
cooperate in this study (Alkassim, Etikan, & Musa, 2015). Although,
nonprobability sampling has a lot of limitations because the balance between
what happens in real-life and controlled conditions are inconsistent (Rarrokhi, 2012). But it is useful
when the population size is very large, randomization is sample is possible to
be achieve (Alkassim, Etikan, & Musa, 2015; Rarrokhi,
2012). Respondents can be found in lecture hall after asking permission
from the lecturer, informed consent is given and the purpose of this study was
explained. Data was collected approximately from 10th to 16th
Emotional Intelligence Short Form Questionnaire (TEIQue SF)
Emotional Intelligence has been
measured by using the 30 items Trait Emotional Intelligence Short Form
Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009) created based on the longer version which
contains 153 questions. The cronbach’s alpha for this questionnaires was
determined to be ? = 0.89 (Sarah, 2017). The range for this scale would be from
1 (completely disagree) to 7 (completely agree). Scoring for this scale is to
total up the scores from the range 1 to 7. Individual who get higher scores
indicating a better emotion-related traits and self-perceived abilities and dispositions?.
Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE)
are measured through the reduced version of General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1995). This inventory has
been reduce from 20 items to 10 items. The reliability for this scale has a
cronbach’s alpha of 0.78 and 0.88 (Romppel, et al., 2013). The scores are
calculated by adding the sums among items, higher score indicating higher
General Well-Being Index (PGWBI)
22 items questionnaire are used to generate an overall Index or total score for
individual’s well-being. The reliability for this measure was found to have a
cronbach’s alpha value of ?= 0.80 to 0.92 (Wike, 2015).
It is used to examine mainly on six dimensions which is anxiety, depressed
mood, positive well-being, self-control, and general health and vitality of
respondent’s health related quality of life. The summary score is a sum of all
the responses, ranging from the lowest level of well-being which is 0 to the
highest level of well-being which is 110 (highest level of well-being).
The three instruments that will be
used to collect data for this research is Trait Emotional Intelligence Short
Form Questionnaire (TEIQue SF), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and
Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) with the total of this 3 scales
of 62 items.
Firstly, the topic of this study
which is “Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy in Enhancing Better
Psychological Well-Being in Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TARUC)
Students” was been purposed to the ethics board to seek for approval. After the
topic are accepted, researcher will be allocate under a supervisor to be
advised and monitor about the research process.
Before collecting data, informed
consent are given to participants who are willing to take part, the main
purpose of this study was explained beforehand. Before distributing the
questionnaires, a brief explanation on the purpose of this study are given.
Participants are asked to study the informed consent and participate in a
voluntary settings. The questionnaires contain Section A (demographic information),
Section B (levels of self-efficacy), Section C (levels of emotional
intelligence) and lastly Section D (levels of psychological well-being).
Students are asked to spend
approximately 15 minutes to finish the questionnaires regarding their emotional
intelligence, self-efficacy, and psychological well-being. The data collected
was then being analyse and discuss in the later part and will keep confidential
without exposing it on any platforms.
Statistical Data Analysis
from Tunku Abdul Rahman University College are randomly picked to identify
their levels of psychological well-being. Statistical Software Package for the
Social Science, SPSS Statistical 23 are being used to analyse the data. 4
research questions has been generated and various statistic function are used
to test the relationships between the variables.
The two main statistic function
being chosen to use is Pearson correlation and Independent T-test. Pearson
correlation function are used to measure of the strength of the relationship between
two variables that cannot be measured quantitatively (Hauke &
T-test is use to access the mean value of the data from two different groups
which are not dependent to one another in an independent sample (Feng, Huang, & Ma, 2017).
For research questions 1 and 2, it
is stated the relationship between student’s emotional intelligence and
self-efficacy in affecting and their psychological well-being thus Pearson
correlation are used to test the relationship of the variables. The independent
variables for these two research questions are emotional intelligence and
self-efficacy, while psychological well-being is the dependent variable. On the
other hand, Independent T-test are applied to research questions 3 and 4 to examine
the mean differences between genders, emotional intelligence and self-efficacy.
The independent variable for this analysis is gender, which consists of male
and female. The dependent variable is emotional intelligence and self-efficacy
However, due to the small sample
size, it is difficult to assume that these test can fulfil the normal
assumptions, and to get significant results. Future studies are encourage to
test the relationship and difference to indicate more specific results. Lastly,
the results will be gathered and analyse through SPSS. It will be further
interpreted and explain in the discussion section.
chapter has conclude the techniques and strategy used to complete this study.
Trait Emotional Intelligence Short Form Questionnaire (TEIQue SF), General
Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI)
are the chosen inventory to test the emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and
psychological well-being among TARUC students. Results will be further discuss
in the next chapter.