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The Central Vigilance Commissioner shall have a fixed tenure of 4 years while the vigilance commissioners shall have a fixed tenure of 3 years subject to the upper age limit of 65 years.

The Central Vigilance Commissioner can be removed in the same manner as provided for the removal of the Chairman of UPSC. After retirement, he is not eligible for any further employment under the Central Government or state government.

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The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) Act, 2003 confers s statutory status on the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) to exercise superintendence over the function by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

The Act authorizes the CVC to probe offences committed by Central government officials, corporations, societies and local authorities.

The Act lays down that the Central Vigilance Commissioner and other vigilance commissioners be appointed by a three member panel consisting of the Prime Minister, the home minister and the leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha.

2. Ombudsman:

A Swedish institution to redress public grievances it embodies suo-motu power to start investigation. According to Donald C. Rowat, the institution of Ombudsman represents a “bulwork of democratic government against the tyranny of officialdom.” In India, Lok pal and Lokayukta is Ombudsman like institutions.

3. Lok Pal:

The institution of Lok Pal, though promised on many occasions, never came into practice. Its novel feature is that it brings even the Prime Minister under the sphere of its enquiry.

Moreover it is to have its own administrative staff to carry on its investigations. It was firstly suggested by Administrative Reform Commission 1966. It is like grievance redressing institution, Ombudsman operating in Sweden.

Though Lok Pal never came into existence, an institution of similar kind called Lokayukta came up in some states. It conducts investigation charges against Chief Minister and other Ministers at the State level. Lokayuktas are responsible to the state legislature.

4. Central Bureau of Investigation:

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up in 1963. The CBI is the main investigating agency of the Central Government. It plays an important role in preventing corruption and maintaining integrity in administration. It also provides assistance to the Central Vigilance Commission.

The Functions of CBI are:

1. To investigate cases of corruption, bribery and misconduct of the Central government employees.

2. To investigate cases relating to infringement of fiscal and economic laws.

3. To investigate serious crimes committed by organised gangs of professional criminals.

4. To coordinate and assist other anti corruption agencies.

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