ii. Bio-augmentation is a process where certain microorganisms are added to clean up particular contaminants in the soil.

iii. Intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation is a process where microorganisms clean up soil contaminants on their own.

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2. Sanitary landfills:

Sanitary landfills are vacant lands where wastes can be dumped. These lands have low levels of water and the drainage is proper so that the wastes are not spoilt further. Solid wastes are collected in layers and covered by a layer of soil. This process is repeated every day. These lands are later used as parks or for housing projects.

3. Vermicompost:

Vermicompost is the method of converting domestic and agricultural wastes into compost through decomposition of organic matter by the earthworms. Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich organic fertilizer.

4. Incineration:

Incinerators are used to convert wastes into usable solid and gaseous residues. This technique is used for disposing off hospital wastes.

5. Public effort:

Citizens can also play a major role in reducing soil pollution by adopting some other methods such as:

i. Planting more trees:

Planting more trees will prevent soil erosion and therefore help in conservation of soil. This will also help make the soil more productive.

ii. Using jute and paper bags:

Plastic bags are a major cause of soil contamination. Increasing use of paper and jute bags can help bring down pollution due to plastic.

iii. Proper disposal of garbage:

Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes should be disposed of properly from homes. Non-biodegradable garbage can be recycled, thus reducing pollution.

iv. Biomedical wastes:

Biomedical wastes can be harmful to human health and they usually remain in the soil. Therefore, biomedical wastes should be properly disposed.

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