The State government has full authority to legislate on the state list under normal circumstances.

Both, the Centre and State government can legislate on the subjects mentioned in the Concurrent List. Like the Canadian constitution, the residuary powers have been vested in the Central Government.

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2. Written Constitution:

In a federal polity, a written constitution ensures that each sphere of government should remain concerned with its own affairs. It minimizes the chances of conflicts and disputes between the two levels of government.

3. Supremacy of Constitution:

India does not have supremacy of either Parliament or the Supreme Court. Rather, there is Supremacy of Constitution.

4. Rigidity of the Constitution:

Most of the federal features of the Indian Constitution cannot be changed easily. Such provisions can be amended only if the amendment is passed by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting in the Parliament (which must also constitute the absolute majority of the total membership) and ratified by at least one-half of the states.

5. Independent Judiciary:

There is separation of powers as regards relationship between legislature or executive and the judiciary. Every effort has been made to ensure that the judicial system is independent and impartial. The judges cannot be removed easily by the executive and their salaries, allowances cannot be changed to their disadvantage.

6. Bicameral Legislature:

Indian Parliament consists of two Houses: Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The representatives of the states are provided membership in the Rajya Sabha.

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