6. Theoretical Inferences

A significant body of
social theory has developed in explaining the processes through

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media exposure have
effects on viewers. According to Coyne and colleagues 14 there is

two theoretical bases in
terms of the role of media in childhood and adolescence. One

rationale includes the
theories of media effects, such as Social
Learning Theory,

A. (1977) , Information
Processing Theory 18, and the General

Model 19. These
theories are based on the notion that media have some effects on

children and adolescents,
whether good or bad, either on attitudes or behavior.
On the

other hand, another way
of investigating media role provided by Used and Gratifications

Theory 20. This theory
rational is that adolescents/children gravitated toward media as

they have specific needs
and media help them to fulfill these
needs 21. A detailed

investigation of previous
literature reveals that children use media to satisfy their specific

psychological needs,
however, they are influenced by media in different aspects.

Research on controversial
television contents combining social learning theory, reveals

that violence content
increases the likelihood of antisocial, aggressive and violent

in long-term as well immediate contexts 22. Furthermore, social learning theory

explains that repeated
observation of real life antisocial/aggressive models portrayed in

media like TV, children
develop a behavior that aggression is
proper, and then they obtain

scripts of how to behave
aggressively 23. In this context, social learning theory has

become one of the
important theories to investigate behavior
development of children

 DOI: 10.1051/ SHS Web of Conferences 33, 00077
(2017) shsconf/20173300077



denoting the research on
TV effects. On the other hand, cultivation theory postulate that

television is the most
powerful storyteller in a culture, which repeats the ideologies and

myths, facts and pattern
of relationships that elucidate the social order 24. Repeated dose

of TV, over time, acts
like the pull of gravity toward an imagined center
which results in a

shared set of concepts
and expectations about reality among diverse viewers 25. As the

proposed area of interest
is TV crime shows’ effects of children, so cultivation analysis has

worth to study behavior development
through a specific TV show.

The social information
processing intent attribute is being considered as one optional

mediator in media effects
research relating violence. The previous professional literature

argues that social
instability and hostile attribution are quite associated and has well

demonstrated with adults
as well as with children 26-27. Crick 28 further investigated

and found that hostile acknowledgment is theorized to contribute to
the development of

aggressive behaviors in children. In this reference, the
social information processing

theory has its own significant to investigate behavior development of children with

reference to TV crime
shows. The General Aggression Model (GAM) 19 is another

theoretical perspective
to explain the development of aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and

This model states that “exposure to media violence may contribute to

enhancing or mitigating
the aggressive constructs”29. Anderson and his colleagues GAM

describes that exposure
to violent media content can affect aggressive thoughts and

feelings then arousal
30, which may lead to some negative outcomes. Television viewing,

especially watching a
specific content may be a meaningful way to investigate behavior

development of children
31using uses and gratification 32 approach . Previous

literature attests that
viewers seek out various type of media content to fulfill their certain

needs 33, so the TV
viewing by children to a specific content (TV Crime Shows) may be

investigated through uses
and gratifications theory;l

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