The marketing can be classified as Macro-Marketing and Micro-Marketing.
Macro marketing means the overall social process that directs the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer. It is the economic system which determines what and how much is to be produced and distributed by whom, when, and to whom.
Macro- marketing functions that make up the economic process include-buying (which refers to consumers seeking and evaluating goods and services), selling (which involves promoting the offering), logistics (movement of goods from one place to another and warehousing till consumers want), standardization and grading(sorting products according to size and quality), financing (which delivers the cash and credit needed to perform the first five functions), and market information (Collection, analysis, and distribution of the data necessary to execute these marketing functions).
Micro-marketing refers to the activities performed by the individual providers of goods and services within a macro-marketing system. Such organizations or businesses use various marketing techniques to accomplish objectives related to profits, market share, cash flow, and other economic factors that can enhance their well being and position in the marketplace. The micro-marketing function within an entity is commonly referred to as marketing management.
2. On the basis of Customers:
On the basis of customers marketing can be Business to customers marketing (b2c marketing), business to business marketing (b2b marketing), rural marketing, urban maketing, international marketing, etc.
Business to Customers Marketing:
The customers purchase goods and services they enjoy. Consequently, it is more difficult to sell them than business buyers. Consumers are generally less sophisticated than intermediate buyers, are less willing to spend time and are more sensitive to the price of a good or service.
Consumers typically make a buying decision on their own, or, for larger purchases, with the help of a friend or family member, and are much more likely to buy on impulse than are industrial customers). If the attention is on each of the individual customers, b2c marketing becomes Personalised Marketing.
Business to Business Marketing:
Since B2B marketing involves companies trying to sell mass quantities of product to one another, there is a more personal relationship that needs to be established between businesses. Market is made up of buyers who purchase for the purpose of creating other goods and services. Thus, their needs are different from general consumers. Buyers in this group include manufacturers and service firms, wholesalers and retailers, governments, and non-profit organization.
International or Global Marketing:
International marketing is the application of marketing principles to marketing across national boundaries. The strategies to be followed make marketing international and global.
In recent years, rural markets have acquired significance, as the overall growth of the economy has resulted into substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. But rural marketing requires a different marketing mix.
Almost all the companies are looking at rural areas for growth momentum. Many large format rural retail stores are visible – DSCL Haryali Stores, M & M Shubh Labh Stores, TATA / Rallis Kisan Kendras, Escorts Rural Stores, Warnabazaar, Maharashtra (Annual Sale f 40 crore), etc.
3. On the basis of Medium:
Marketing on the basis of media can be categorised further on the basis of electronic media, social medium and other medium.
On-line Marketing or Internet Marketing:
It refers to use of internet and related digital information and communication technologies to achieve marketing objectives. The other similar terms in use are ‘internet marketing’, or cyber-marketing. The term M- marketing actually refers to marketing through mobile phones.
According to Franchise India, India is set to become the third largest nation of internet users in the next two years. The online retail industry is likely to be worth Rs 7,000 crore by 2015, due to easy availability of broadband services and increasing internet penetration. Transaction numbers are expected to touch four crore by 2015, up from the current 80-100 lakh.
It takes advantage of the global reach of the World Wide Web and the huge number of potential customers available online through internet. It is the opposite of offline marketing. A company with a total web site marketing plan will have more success online than one that has just designed a web site without thinking of how to market their company through it.
Mobile Marketing, Telemarketing, and Search Engine Marketing:
Presently, India boasts of over 700 million mobile users (which are expected to double in the next three years). The prospects of mobile marketing are huge in India. However, it has yet to take off in a splendid manner. Around 30 million of these users access mobile Internet- the largest in Asia.
The country offers huge potential to marketers to reach their audiences, i.e., end users in a direct and personalized way. Besides people in the metros, people in rural area are also recognizing the potential of a mobile phone. Among various mobile marketing channels globally, SMS is the trendiest because of its ubiquitous nature Also, mobile coupons (recently Carrefour did it while opening its cash and carry store in Shahdara area of Delhi) gaining recognition as part of the overall marketing campaign.
Telemarketing is the process of marketing goods or services over the telephone. This definitely ensures easy access to the right target audience. In fact telemarketing has made a mark across all the competitive economies across the world and undoubtedly telemarketing in India has become rather big too. Most of what we think of as telemarketing is cold call marketing, which is unpopular and has lead to laws being created against it.
There are basically two types of telemarketing, inbound telemarketing and out bound telemarketing. Inbound Tele Marketing is usually from prospective customers who are looking at either finding out more information about a particular product or services; or are looking at placing an order for a product or service. Out Bound Tele Marketing is usually targeted towards prospective customers or clients and involves informing them about a product or service.
Search Engine Marketing (SEM) refers to companies promoting their business through paid placement on search engines like Google. Instead of increasing the organic search results that a website has, companies will pay to have their advertisements in the sponsored section of search engines.
On the basis of social medium marketing can be classified into Social Media Marketing, Article Marketing, Referral Marketing, Affiliate Marketing, and Viral Marketing. On the basis of media another classification can be Trade show marketing.
Social Network Marketing and social media campaigns’ provide a window to market a product or service on the Internet through different social networks. Most of the MNCs working in India now make use of these outlets for their marketing, customer service and sales. The most common and successful means of social media marketing are found on sites like Face book, Twitter, Linkedln, YouTube and even company blogs.
When businesses write articles relating to the industry they are in and distribute them online and offline, it is called article marketing. These free articles will inform people about an important topic and give the writer-company more credibility within the market. The organization can also include their business contact information, to get new clients.
Referral Marketing is dependent on a company’s customers to refer new customers to that company. Also known as ‘word of mouth marketing’, it cannot be solely relied on because results aren’t very predictable. However, word of mouth is still a powerful part of a company’s efforts to bring in new business, especially in the social media community where communication travels freely.
Affiliate Marketing normally involves four different groups who contribute to the marketing effort. First is the company that is producing and selling the product; second is the Network, the outlet that is used to promote the affiliate link; third is the Publisher or Affiliate, the person who has the website with the affiliate ad; and of course the customer doing the purchasing. Affiliate links are found on all types of websites, and they are used to drive traffic to outside websites.
Viral Marketing means a marketer quickly tries to spread his message through various social networks in order to increase brand awareness. The name viral marketing comes from the rapid spread of viruses in general. Burger King had created the ‘Sunservient Chicken’ website, where Web surfers were able to control a person in chicken suit by typing in commands.
More than 50 million people surfed the Website in less than a year. Viral marketing encourages individuals to spread marketing message to others – to thousands, to millions, like a virus. On the Internet, viral marketing is called as “word-of-mouth”, “network marketing”, “creating a buzz”, etc. The latest examples of viral marketing are the song ‘Kolaveri Di…’ and Mahindra and Mahindra’s XUV ad.
Other Medium Marketing Types:
Offline Marketing is inclusive of all forms of marketing that do not use the Internet. Examples of offline marketing are local advertising in newspapers and on television. In today’s marketing world, companies are finding ways to leverage their offline marketing campaigns with their online ones, making them complement each other.
Direct Marketing means to send a communication straight to consumers, without making use of any third party outlets. Examples of direct marketing include mail marketing, telemarketing (most of the real estate companies) and direct selling (Eureka selling its water purifiers). The advantage with direct marketing is that the results can be easily measured, giving the marketer a better understanding of his efforts.
Database Marketing refers to techniques employed by Customer Relationship Management (CRM) to identify different kinds of customers, so as to determine different strategies for each customer. It is similar to any kind of direct marketing, but the focus is more directed towards analyzing data like name, address, or sales history, in order to create the most accurate model possible. Companies narrow their marketing efforts down to certain groups of people.
Digital Marketing: Digital Marketing is the pratice of promoting products and services using database-driven online distribution channels to reach consumers in a timely, relevant, personal and cost-effective manner. At its heart, digital marketing centers around the Internet, which has become both a communication vehicle and a very powerful marketing medium as the recent Doubleclick acquisition by Google demonstrated.
The Internet can be used both to push a message to someone like email, IM, RSS, or voice broadcast, as well to “pull” content serving a banner ad and Pay Per Click search terms. Digital marketing, therefore, can be thought of as the combination of push and pull Internet technologies to execute marketing campaigns, it does not include more traditional forms of marketing such as radio, TV, billboard and print because they do not offer instant feedback and report.
Sure, some people may respond to a call to action from an advertisement in one of these mediums but there is no way to know the exact number of people who saw or heard it. Such data is collected (and still then just educated guesses) long after the initial ad impression is made. Yes, convergence has made television at bit more interactive, with devices such as TiVo able to record viewer statistics like those for Web sites, but there is still a long way to go. With digital marketing, however, we’re already there.
Trade Show Marketing is used to participate in public or private trade fairs and exhibitions to a large number of potential customers. Trade shows and other forms of event marketing though involve a large investment, but trade shows permit companies to demonstrate new products and also assess as to what is going on in the industry. HUL regularly sponsors Lakme Fashion Week.
4. On the basis of Interest:
The classification is dependent upon who is more interested in marketing. It may be outbound marketing or Inbound marketing. Majority of companies today are using different types of outbound marketing to reach their potential customers. Outbound marketing includes any marketing efforts that are taken to introduce a product or service to someone who isn’t looking for that product or service.
Some examples are cold calling, sending newsletters, billboards, and banner ads on different web sites. When the customer tries to reach at you it is called Inbound marketing. Instead of using paid advertisements, inbound marketing is the search engine optimization (SEO) part of web marketing. A form similar to it is known as Reverse marketing. The goal of reverse marketing is to market a product in a way that will cause the consumer to seek the firm doing the marketing.
“Social marketing is the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, it is concerned with the ecologically harmful impact of product or packaging materials to prevent harming the interests of buyers and others.
Social marketing is at times also called as ‘Cause marketing’. Marketer’s commitment to the cause is not one-night, but truly devoted.
Social marketing is distinguished from societal marketing. According to Andreasen, societal marketing deals with regulatory issues and various efforts to protect consumers from problems in the marketplace. But it’s a very narrow view and we can’t subscribe to it.
It is the linking of a product or brand with a particular cause to help raise revenue for charity. What does the product or brand gain? Goodwill. This has proven to be pretty effective. In a survey conducted in the UK (“Brand Benefits Survey, Business in the community 2003/04”), it was found that 48% of the customers showed a difference in behaviour towards a particular brand due to some goodwill campaign it was associated with.
But there are other variants of goodwill marketing – the offering of the product or service in itself earns goodwill. So the brand will not raise money for charity; the brand itself will deliver to a cause, thus directly earning goodwill. A good example for this: Campaign for Real Beauty by Dove.
The internet has greatly aided this second variant for many leading brands. Classic cases are:
1. Johnson & Johnson’s Baby Center (babycenter.com), a website targeted at young mothers which promotes the parent brand (Johnson Baby)
2. P&G’s Being Girl (beinggirl.com), for adolescent girls which promotes the feminine hygiene products of P&G (e.g. Tampax and Always in the US, Whisper in India)
3. And Unilever’s Campaign For Real Beauty (campaignforrealbeauty.com) targeted at upper-middle class women between 25-35 years, which promotes Dove.
“Emotion marketing is the enterprise-wide pursuit of a sustainable connection that makes customers feel so valued and cared for they’ll go out of their way to be loyal.” It encompasses every stage of the customer life cycle – from acquisition to activation, retention to reactivation.
The emphasis in Relationship marketing is on developing long-term relationships with customers and suppliers who add value for all parties through collaboration. However, when we talk of customer relationship marketing it talks of collaboration only with the customers.
It is different from Transactional marketing as the emphasis is on retaining the existing customers as long as possible as well as acquiring valuable new customers. It refers to “long-term, mutually beneficial arrangements in which both the buyer and seller focus on value enhancement through the creation of more satisfying exchanges.” Relationship gives birth to personalization.
5. On the Basis of Target:
If the target customer group is small and specific a firm would go in for Niche Marketing, otherwise it would go in for Mass Marketing. Niche marketing is also known as Concentrated Marketing. It appeals especially when company’s resources are limited. In niche marketing, a company goes after a large share of one or a few segments, rather than going after a small share of a large market.
The definition of niche marketing changes with the times; what is niche today may not be so tomorrow. In its temporal sense, creating a niche market would mean identifying particular market segments and then filling the gaps therein. “These gaps are opportunities where one has to look for ways to sustain the competitive advantage, look for something that is buildable that will align all elements of your company.”
Deals with products sold to very large number of people at normally low prices – high volume low prices while niche marketers focus on high sales at high prices. In niche marketing the concentration is on those segments of the market which are not catered by mainstream firms, as they do not find efforts worth profitable.
Mass marketing uses expensive forms of media to reach out to the people. Niche marketers’ budget is not wide enough to support mainstream media advertising. Mass marketers focus on high sales at low prices while niche marketers focus on high sales at high prices. But most times the result is low sales at very high prices. In Niche marketing the product is tailor-made for customers while in Mass marketing the product is for the general public.
When a product or service is not being readily supplied to a certain portion of a market, a company can focus its efforts on that niche to address a need that isn’t currently being addressed to by large mainstream players. This targeted marketing is successful because the marketer has identified a need that isn’t being resolved by mainstream providers. Sometimes it is beneficial for a company to focus on a niche instead of trying to compete in a larger market.
6. On the Basis of Philosophy:
It refers to following ethical marketing practices. Coca Cola and Pepsi were found to sell colas with higher than permitted levels of pesticide residues, Cadbury was found selling chocolate packs infested with worms, Amul was caught putting post-dated labels on its butter packs, and Satyam was indulging in fudging the account books. Such incidents are eroding public confidence in these products/companies.
It is the philosophical position which drives. Besides, these cases, many others go scot free. The unethical practices may be in manufacturing processes or waste disposal, and marketing or accounting. To be specific, some of the unethical marketing practices include – offering products against broader interests of the society (Cigarettes and tobacco products), discriminatory pricing (different prices to different customers), making tall claims “in advertising (Complain claiming children becoming taller who take Complain), deceptive sales promotion (writing ‘conditions apply’ in very small fonts), and targeting inappropriate customers (to sell cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, and junk food (through all distribution channels and making use of all channels at all times indiscreetly).
Value-based marketing is the inclusion of the value of marketing strategy and marketing activity in an organisation’s financial analysis of shareholder value. Marketing shareholder value analysis (SVA) divides the estimation of the value to the business created by a marketing strategy into two accounts: (i) the present value of cash flows during the strategizing and planning phases and (ii) the continuing value of the business at the end of the planning. Marketing mix can be used to enhance perceptions of value.
Green marketing is marketing which supports environmental leadership by creating environmentally founded differential benefit in the minds of consumers. It involves development and distribution of ecologically-safe products.
It refers to products and packages that have one or more of the following characteristics: (1) are less toxic, (2) are more durable, (3) contain reusable materials, or (4) are made of recyclable material. In short, these are products considered “environmentally responsible”.
To sight an example one executive rightly stated that “Any marketing executive who does not put a ‘green’ filter on their strategies is looking at losing market share. The whole idea of disposal is going to become unacceptable”. In Germany and Canada, Procter & Gamble has found high consumer acceptance of pouches of liquid detergents and fabric softeners so that consumers can refill rather than discard large plastic bottles. Green Marketing may create a differential benefit in the eyes of customers.
7. On the Basis of Strategic Considerations:
Strategic Marketing and Operational Marketing:
Operational marketing is concerned with the operational objectives, like, sales target within a given period. Strategic marketing treats marketing as a concept which should imbibe long-term strategic thinking in the organization to think strategically about its products and services, customers and markets, and its competitors.
Demarketing refers to discouraging customers. In this context it has two perspectives. One that a restaurant for business people would not like to book seats for students out of fear of losing its regular customers. And two, most of the public utility companies like Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India or Indian Oil Corporation asks public to conserve oil.
Marketing Guru Jerry Welsh was the first to coin the word Ambush marketing as a situation in which a company or product seeks to ride on the publicity values of a major event without having to finance the event through sponsorship. Ambush Marketing means when companies try to pass themselves off as official sponsors when they are not. Most of the advertisements are done during major sporting events. Companies begin to advertise nationwide.
Another way Ambush marketing explains is pretending to be a sponsor of a major sporting events but actually not being a sponsor i.e. without paying requisite fees.
Ambush or parasitic marketing can be classified in two categories – 1. Direct Ambush Marketing. In 1994 Football World Cup, MasterCard received exclusive rights for using World Cup logo, but a rival Sprints Communication used the logo without permission. This is direct attack but can be defended by laws. 2. Indirect Ambush Marketing. Several ways Indirect ambush marketing can take place like sponsoring the broadcast of the event, sponsoring subcategories of the major event etc.
Kodak vs. Fuji: an Example of Ambush Marketing:
Eastman Kodak of Rochester, NY reportedly spent about $40 million to be the sole imaging sponsor of the 1996 Olympic Games. Fuji – another film company, which advertised on the radio and on newspaper, believed that the promotion may take advantage of the country’s strong interest in sports.
Fuji also planned to offer a poster series and desk calendar featuring athletes such as Dan O’Brien and Michael Johnson, both strong contenders for the Olympic team. The concern is that people walk away thinking that another film company besides Kodak is an Olympics sponsor. Fuji was sponsor the track and field since 1990, Images of Excellence show just how blurry the line is between savvy marketing and deliberate ambushing can become.
Outcomes of Ambush Marketing:
Ambush Marketing is a strategy whereby the advertisers associate themselves with, and therefore, capitalize on, a particular event without paying any sponsorship charges. For Olympic Games the International Olympic Committee (IOC), a non-governmental, non-profit organization is the authority owning Olympic symbol, flag, motto, anthem and the Olympic Games.
It is the IOC to decide of sponsors who shall be qualified to use Olympic related symbols. All those who try to represent themselves as being associated with the Olympics, without permission of the IOC will be Ambush marketers. For example, Coca Cola may be official sponsor of Cricket World Cup, and PepsiCo may use ambush marketing medium (‘Nothing Official about it’) to create an impression of connectedness.
Through its ambush marketing it will cast shadow on the sponsorship made by its competitor. Ambush marketers make a greater effect on the audience compared to that of official sponsors. Ambush Marketing is also known as ‘Parasitic Marketing’ and ‘guerilla marketing’. The word ambush means ‘an attack from a hidden position’.
The term ‘Ambush Marketing’ was first coined by the famous marketing strategist, Jerry Welsch. According to him, the roots of ambush marketing lie in escalating prices and the ‘distressed imagery of category-exclusive sponsorships’. In case of ambush marketing most of the examples are from sports fields, because almost one third of the sponsorships belong to sports. Of the different methods used by ambush marketers is buying commercial time over broadcasting of events.
During Norway Olympics, Visa was the Sponsor and the American Express Company baffled Visa and IOC with the ad ‘If you’re travelling to Norway, you’ll need a passport, but you don’t need a visa’. Another technique is to become sponsor of broadcasting. Kodak was thus able in 1984 Olympics to score over Fuji, the official sponsor, by being sponsor of broadcasting on ABC television.
The third technique is to make independent contacts with athletes and teams. In 1992 Olympics, where Coca Cola was the official sponsor, PepsiCo ambushed Coca Cola by airing a commercial, featuring Magic Johnson, a member of the US Olympic Team. In ICC Cricket World Cup 2007, Hutch Telecom was the official sponsor, and Reliance Telecom tied up with Sachin Tendulkar, and ads featuring him and score updates using his voice were telecast during the tournament.
Fourth technique took place in 1992 Olympics, where Reebok was the official sponsor, and Michael Jordan and Charles Barkley, having contracts with Nike, covered the Reebok logo on their tracksuits with a US flag. Fifth technique is distribution of tickets of the events as prizes in consumer giveaways, sweepstakes, etc. noticed during ICC Cricket World Cup in 2003.
During FIFA World Cup 2006, wherein McDonalds was the official sponsor, the other famous fast food chain Burger King had tried to run a contest that distributed tickets and travel packages to the FIFA World Cup in Germany as prizes. Sixth technique is the ‘good luck’ or ‘congratulatory’ messages to teams or athletes through ads in different media.
Seventh technique is throwing parties and arranging other events in host cities during and after the main event. During 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Budweiser was the official sponsor, but the German brewer Warsteiner Beer greeted the sports fans moving to the Olympic Stadium. Seventh technique used has been buying ad spaces in and around the event place. It may include local bill boards, hanging banners, signs on buildings, etc.
During 1984 Los Angeles Olympics Games, wherein Converse was the Official sponsor, their main rival Nike built huge murals near the Loss Angeles Stadium displaying Nike logo and pictures of athletes wearing sporting clothes. During 2002 Winter games in Salt Lake City, Anheuser-Busch was the official sponsor, but a local company, Serif brewery came up with an indigenous idea and painted its delivery trucks painted with the slogan ‘Wasutch Beers:
The unofficial Beer- 2002 Winter Games’. Eighth technique observed has been making people wear apparels with ambusher’s mark and making them carry products, signs, or accessories of the ambusher. During FIFA World Cup 2002, hosted by Japan and Korea was sponsored by JVC and Philips. But Samsung distributed baseball caps with the logo of Samsung among the spectators and gained a competitive edge over the official sponsors.
The US Postal Service released a series of stamps with Olympic themes and announced to license the stamps to others. Yet another technique adopted by the Telecom New Zealand Ltd. During 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games, launched an ad that featured five repetitions of the word ‘ring’ using colours and disposition, similar to the rings of the Olympic symbol. A latest technique used by ambush marketers is registering domain names containing the event title or names having reference to the events.
The impact of ambush marketing is that exclusivity is lost and the value of sponsorship is also lost. Secondly, it leads to transgression on the intellectual property rights associated with an event. Thirdly, it also brings in some ethical issues by threatening the integrity and future of such events. Those who support argue that it acts as a positive force in a free market and it is the right of free speech. The words – ‘World Cup’. ‘Olympics’, ‘Games’, ‘Fashion Week’ etc. are in public domain and everyone has a right to use these terms effectively.
It includes group of activities which occur within the firm, aimed at moulding the corporate culture and behaviour of individuals. From the marketing viewpoint, the members of the organization are involved in exchange processes. Employees exchange their time and commitment for the organisation’s money.
Internal marketing can be thought of “viewing employees as internal customers, viewing jobs as internal products and then endeavouring to offer internal products that satisfy the needs and wants of these internal customers while addressing the objectives of an organization.
Comparison between Transactional Marketing and Relationship Marketing:
1. Emphasis on getting new customers
2. Short-term orientation
3. Interest in making a single sale
4. Limited commitment to customers
5. Success means making a sale
6. Quality is a production concern
7. Limited customer service
1. Emphasis on keeping customers as well as getting new ones
2. Long-term orientation
3. Interest in repeat purchases and ongoing relationships
4. High level of customer involvement
5. Success means customer loyalty, word-of-mouth communication and low customer turnover
6. Quality is every employee’s concern
7. High degree of service commitment
Surrogate Marketing refers to intentionally utilizing a company, person or object to help convey the message of another party. The term has both positive and negative connotations. On the positive side, surrogate marketing is somewhat akin to grassroots or viral marketing in which a marketing organisation “farms out” the total marketing function and the firm providing is called “surrogate marketing department”.
The second perspective with respect to the surrogate marketing is when promoting one product or service in the hopes of selling another. Firms have to use it due to ban on tobacco and alcohol advertising in India. Companies in these industries are introducing brand extensions with products which are legal to advertise with the same brand name as the banned product.
Bacardi and Royal Stag entered launched their music CDs, Kingfisher entered the segment of mineral water a substitute for restricted items. Similarly, in a Bagpiper ad Ajay Devgan appears. After a fight he recommends Bagpiper and after a pause tags it with the word “soda”. The word soda comes a bit late and the audience is already thinking.
That is surrogate advertising. Bagpiper Soda is a surrogate product. And Ajay Devgan is not a big fan of the Soda. One liquor company introduced apple juice with the same brand name as the liquor. So the apple juice, for instance, is the surrogate for the liquor in the ads. The companies also don’t care much about the sales of the surrogate products – for instance, the apple juice isn’t even readily available to buy throughout the company.
The term was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson. Guerrilla Marketing is more about matching wits than matching budgets. Guerrilla marketing can be as different from traditional marketing as guerrilla warfare is from traditional warfare. Guerrilla marketers spend their marketing resources for maximum impact.
Thus, it is an advertising strategy in which low-cost unconventional means like graffiti, sticker bombing, flash mobs are utilized, often in a localized fashion or large network of individual cells, to convey or promote a product or an idea. The term guerrilla marketing is easily traced to guerrilla warfare which utilizes atypical tactics to achieve a goal in a competitive and difficult environment.
Please note the list is not complete. Also see the last chapter of the book to view more classifications. Secondly, different kinds of marketing can be put into different categories depending upon the classification criteria used by the writer.