4. The degree of ideological distance may be discovered between different parties.
5. Centrifugal drives prevail over centripetal ones.
6. Existence of different parties differing not only in policies but more importantly on principal fundamentals.
7. Existence of irresponsible opposition.
8. The ruling party or other ones may cause inflationary disequilibrium by making tall promises to the voters.
A Biparty system is one where the existence of third party does not prevent the two major parties from governing alone, and therefore coalitions are unnecessary.
Sartori has included the case of countries having stable coalition systems in this category (Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, and Denmark).
Sartori has excluded the case of United States from this model on the plea that this applies to a country having Cabinet Government, not a presidential Government.
Multi or atomized party system leads to the existence of highly fluid party politics.
A coalition party is fragmented by leaders with very small groups revolving around each leader.
But in practice, it creates a problems lack of cohesion in coalitional form of government, reading to precarious instability.
But experiences in countries like Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany with long tradition
of multiparty system have shown stable and successful governments.