Q.2. How can mineral resource conserved?

Ans. Mineral resource can be conserved by

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i. Minimising waste and developing technologies to recover the resources from waste.

ii. Developing technologies to recycle metals.

iii. Developing allow which will reduce the demand of pure metals.

iv. Finding the alternative of fossil fuels.

v. Reclaiming the mining areas.

Q.3. Write a short note on Mineral resource of India.

Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic, crystalline solid having a definite chemical composition and characteristic physical properties. There are thousands of minerals occurring in different parts of the world. India has a thriving mining industry with mineral sector contributing about 3% of gross domestic product.

The number of minerals mined in India is more than 80 and can be grouped into (i) fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, lignite, (ii) metallic minerals like iron ore, chromium ore, bauxite etc, and (iii) non-metallic minerals like lime stone, dolomite, phosphorite, clay etc.

Q.4. Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable natural resources.

Ans. Renewable resources which are in-exhaustive and can be regenerated within a given span of time, e.g., forests, wildlife, wind energy, biomass energy, tidal energy, hydro power etc. whereas Non-renewable sources are not be regenerated, e.g., fossil fuel like coal, petroleum; minerals etc. once we exhaust these reserves, the same cannot be replenished.

Q.5. Distinguish between the following:

Afforestation and agroforestation

Deforestation and desertification

Ans. Afforestation is the program that is carried out to increase the forest cover area by plant more trees in the forest while in agroforestation different agricultural crops are plants to increase the productivity or yield and to improve the soil quality.

Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous (original) forests and woodlands Deforestation is defined as the complete cleaning of tree formation and their replacement by using land for other purpose where as desertification is a process whereby the productivity potential or arid or semi-arid lands falls by 10% or more and turns productive land into non­productive deserts.

Q.6. Write short notes on:

Water logging

Causes and effects of deforestation

Ans: The raised water table results in the soils becoming waterlogged. It also occurs on areas that are poorly drained topographically and having impermeable clay layer below the soil. When soils are water logged, air spaces in the soil are filled with water, and plant roots lack oxygen and damages soil structure.

Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous (original) forests and woodlands. Major causes of deforestation are Population growth, Shifting cultivation, Fuel and raw material, Growing food need, Overgrazing, Fires and Acid rain.

Effects of deforestation are numerous. Rise in temperature, low rain fall, accelerated soil erosion, loss of habitat and species and desertification.

Q.7. What are the different methods of conserving water resource?

Ans. Rainwater harvesting has become a very popular method of conserving water especially in the urban areas. Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and storing it underground for later use. Conservation of water in the agricultural sector is essential since water is necessary for the growth of plants and crops.

Simple techniques can be used to reduce the demand for water. The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people’s attitudes and habits % this includes each one of us. Conserve water because it is the right thing to do.

Q.8. Briefly discuss the waterborne disease.

Ans. Waterborne diseases are any illness caused by drinking water contaminated by human or animal faeces, which contain pathogenic micro-organisms. Waterborne disease can be caused by protozoa, viruses, bacteria and intestinal parasites. The main diseases caused by water are Cholera, Botulism, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Dysentery, Cryptosporidiosis, Polio and Giardia.

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