A- The Puritans- or the “visible saints”- believed that they alone were eligible for church membership as they were part of the (saved) elect from their belief of predestination. Accordingly, they believed that they were the best and thus only they had the right to practice religion. The Puritans did not want other non believers to taint the relationship with God when they practiced the Puritan religion; they believed that they were carrying God’s mission sent to them when barring other “incorrect” religions. They were hostile to people with opposing theological ideas; an example is Anne Hutchinson who was exiled.C- The Puritans strongly believed in the notion of a covenant, the agreement between God and people. The Puritans watched closely over each other and created a strong community to make sure that no one violated the covenant, for it is the community that honors and keeps the covenant, not only an individual. In addition, the Puritans felt strongly about community because they had to stay together to survive; they felt a sense of kinship when they came together from England. B- Salutary Neglect mostly ignored America’s economic laws, allowing them to trade with other nations besides the British. American practices of smuggling began at this time, which later angered the British when Salutary Neglect ended. They started trading with the French and West Indies which gave them more freedom.E- The Dawes Severalty Act was implemented so that there would be more available land for the whites to use. It dismantled the Native American reservations that were held communally and allotted smaller units to individuals in the tribe. In this way, it tried to mold flexible Native American lifestyles to rigid American federal laws, from a tribal group to individuals. It encouraged the Native Americans to farm government held land instead of hunter-gathering; if the Natives were not successful in farming, then the government took back the land and put it for sale. All Native American land once owned was taken by the government. It also forced Native American children to attend boarding schools where the children were punished if they exhibited signs of their native culture. E- Americans were not interested in conserving the soil because the only goal they had in mind was to move west to make money (by exploiting the natural resources) and to spread across the country (because of Manifest Destiny). Lots of Americans went west to settle rapidly due to the Homestead Act as well, for it offered lots of land at cheap prices and fair conditions. Lastly, soil conservation was not an issue because the Americans believed that their land was infinite, so they didn’t need to conserve resources as it would always be there.B- Citizenship for people born in America was granted to blacks, but it was not granted to all races. For example, the Native Americans did not gain citizenship until 1924 due to their non-assimilation into American culture. Yet the Reconstruction Congress did give blacks voting rights and citizenship in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, as well as a Civil Rights Act (1866) which protected ex-slaves from Southern laws (e.g. Black Codes, Vagrancy Laws) that jeopardized their newly gained freedom. A military occupied the South as well to make sure that the South was following the implemented northern administration. The Amendments were also passed during Reconstruction in the years of 1865 to 1870.C- Although Reconstruction formally ended with the Compromise of 1877 where Hayes agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, it also ended because the Northerners believed that their efforts would not get the South to change its mind. Reconstruction started in 1865; the conditions of the blacks did improve, but in ten years, the whites still hadn’t changed their opinions on racial equality, and some might argue that conditions became even worse for the blacks (i.e. Jim Crow Laws, Ku Klux Klan, Redeemers). Lastly, Northerners were also focused on recovering money from the Panic of 1873 and didn’t have any money to pay taxes for Reconstruction. In general, people were tired of trying to change immutable conditions.B- The First Great Awakening was an emotional response; it sought to revive the religious fervor that the churchgoers lost. Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were very intense in their speeches and succeeded in revitalizing and recruiting people. The Second Great Awakening, while religious, also created an urge to reform society. Groups formed to prohibit alcohol (American Temperance Society), increase public education (Horace Mann), support rights for women (Mott, Cady Stanton, Anthony), and help the mentally ill (Dorothea Dix). These reform movements made people realize the immorality of slavery, leading to the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments after the Civil War. C- The Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state to preserve the sectional balance and prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory above the 36 30′ latitude line, excluding Missouri. Thus, only half of the Louisiana Territory prohibited slavery. Texas was annexed in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and no such event provided admission of future states in pairs of free/slave, as shown in the Compromise of 1850 when California was admitted as a free state but no other state was admitted as slave. Congressional power was not established either. B- The Articles were weak because power laid mostly with the states. The states, not Congress, had the power to tax. To raise money, Congress had to ask the states or borrow from foreign governments.  Congress couldn’t even regulate trade. Because of this, the Constitution gave the federal government (including Congress) more power to regulate affairs in the country so that the country would not fall apart.

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