ABSTRACT: Obstacle Detection Radar is a system used to detect object using sensor. Ultrasonic Sensor transmits pulses which in return bounce back from object and in turn will be displayed on screen in Red area depicting object. I am aiming to make Obstacle Detection Radar which is optimized, cheaper and portrays all the possible techniques that radar consists of. Ultrasonic Sensor transmits pulses in conical shape which in return bounce back after striking from object.Further, this project can be enhanced by implementing a gun, when an object is detected then gun strikes the target. Arduino controller and ultrasonic sensor is the base of this project.Additionally, being a student of HIS, I have been interested about the most recent progressing innovation on the earth like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and so forth. Consequently, this time I could take a few to get back some composure of one of the Arduino boards, Arduino Leonardo. So, knowing about the power and diversity of the Arduino, I thought of making it much better application specific module which can be used in a flexible way according to the requirements.Index Terms—Arduino Uno, Ultrasonic Sensor, Servo Motor, Obstacle Detection, Sketch, 3D Drawing.Status: This project has been completed successfully, and my goal of integrating the sensor with the arduino and all the underlying technologies has been achieved. The ultrasonic sensor is successfully able to detect any object in its territory at which servo rotates and transmits them to a Processing sketch, where they are visualized for simple analysis in the form of Radar. In the below sections, I will describe various outstanding areas on which I worked in integrating and completing the project. Three specific areas on which I worked on this project includes Ultrasonic Sensor and capturing the data from Arduino and depict it on Processing Sketch in the form of Radar display.I. INTRODUCTIONThis system is a object detection system which utilizes radio waves to decide the range, elevation, heading, or speed of objects. US sensor arrives in variety of sizes and has diverse range particulars. A radar system is the heart of a missile guidance system. Little compact radar systems that can be kept up and worked by one individual are accessible and in addition systems that involve a few vast rooms. Some radar frameworks are utilized for aviation authority at air traffic system and others are utilized for long range to distinguish any risk from foe or it can be for any reason, reconnaissance and early-cautioning systems. The cutting edge employments of radar are exceedingly various, including aviation authority, radar stargazing, air-resistance frameworks, antimissile frameworks; marine radars to meteorological applications; aircraft anti-collision systems; air traffic control system ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control systems; guided missile target locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar for geological observations. Cutting edge radar frameworks are related with advanced digital signal processing and are equipped for extracting valuable data from high noise levels 1. The project works on the principle of radar echo effect of the transmitting signal. Arduino control the servo motor for the direction of ultrasonic sensor and it moves from 0 degree to 160 degree. Ultrasonic sensor transmits the signal in all direction and if any obstacle that is target is detected then echo pulse sense. With the help of this echo pulse arduino program find out the distance and direction angle of the target.II. MY CONTRIBUTION AND BI-WEEKLY REPORTThree specific areas on which I worked on this project includes Ultrasonic Sensor and capturing the data from Arduino and depict it on Processing Sketch in the form of Radar display. a. Working principle of Ultrasonic Sensor – 20th Nov to 4th Dec.b. Receive data from Arduino in Processing – 6th Dec to 1st Jan.c. Depict the data on Processing IDE in form of Radar Screen – 5th Jan to 15th Jan III. LITERATURE SURVEYThe thought regarding Army, Navy and the Air Force make utilization of this innovation. The utilization of such innovation has been seen recently in the self-parking auto industry propelled by AUDI, FORD and so forth. And even the upcoming driverless cars by Google like Prius and Lexus. The venture made by us can be utilized as a part of any frameworks the client might need to utilize like in an auto, a bike or whatever else. The utilization of Arduino in the undertaking gives much greater adaptability of use of the above-said module as per the necessities 2.The idea of making an Ultrasonic RADAR came as a part of my interest in Aviation industry which assists ATC to locate planes. Additionally, being a student of HIS, I have been interested about the most recent progressing innovation on the earth like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and so forth. Consequently, this time I could take a few to get back some composure of one of the Arduino boards, Arduino Leonardo. So, knowing about the power and diversity of the Arduino, I thought of making it much better application specific module which can be used in a flexible way according to the requirements.IV. ULTRASONIC HC-SR04 Ultrasonic sensors HC-SR04 emit short, high-frequency sound pulses at regular intervals. These proliferate noticeable all around at the speed of sound. In the event that they strike an object, at that point they are reflected back as echo signal to the sensor, which itself figures the separation to the objective in view of the time-traverse between releasing the signal and getting the sound back. As the separation to a question is controlled by estimating the season of flight and not by the force of the sound, ultrasonic sensors are fantastic at suppressing background interference. For all intents and purposes all materials which reflect sound can be recognized, regardless of their color. Indeed, even transparent materials or thin foils speak to no issue for a ultrasonic sensor. Smaller scale ultrasonic sensors are reasonable for target separations from 20 mm to 10 m and as they measure the season of flight they can find out estimation with pinpoint precision. Some of sensors can even compute the signal to a precision of 0.025 mm.Ultrasonic sensors can see through dust-laden air and ink fogs. Indeed, even thin stores on the sensor film don’t weaken its capacity. Sensors with a visually impaired zone of just 20 mm and a to a great degree thin bar spread are making altogether new applications conceivable today. a. OPERATION OF ULTRASONIC SENSOR HC-SR04At the point when an electrical beam of high voltage is sent to the ultrasonic transducer it vibrates over a particular range of frequencies and produces a burst of sound waves. At whatever point any object comes in front of the ultrasonic sensor the sound waves will reflect back and produces an electric pulse. It ascertains the time taken between sending sound waves and accepting waves. The resound examples will be contrasted and the examples of sound waves to decide identified signal condition b. FEATURES OF ULTRASONIC SENSOR HC-SR041. Supply voltage: 5V (DC).2. Supply current: 15mA.3. Modulation frequency: 40Hz.4. Output: 0 – 5V (Output high when obstacle detected in range).5. Beam Angle: Max 15 degree.6. Distance: 2cm – 400cm.US sensor detects the object by transmitting pulses and the signals reflect back after striking with the object in its range. This blast ventures or goes through the air, hits an article and after that bounces to the sensor.The sensor gives a yield heartbeat to the host that will end when the echo is distinguished; consequently, the separation of the question is figured by assessing width of one heartbeat to the following by a program to give result for distance of the object.Ultrasonic sensors work by transmitting a beat of sound, much like sonar finders, outside the scope of human hearing. This heartbeat ventures in a cone like shape at the speed of sound (340 m/s). The sound reflects from object and back to the range discoverer. The sensor deciphers this as a resound and figures the time interval between sending the signal and accepting the received signal.V. PROCESSING ENVIRONMENTProcessing is an open source environment tool and integrated development environment (IDE) worked for the electronic expressions, new media tools, and visual plan groups with the reason for educating the basics of PC programming in a visual setting, and to draw the basics for electronic sketchbooks. Java language is used, yet utilizes an improved grammar and illustrations programming model. 5.The Processing Development Environment (PDE) makes it easy for the beginners or programmers in the area of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional sketches. It can also be used to give light to the specific object in your graphics, set the camera and making 2-dimensional objects. P2D draws fast but less accurate. However, P2D and P3D both works perfectly if the user computer has OpenGL compatible graphics card. In my project, I drew Radar screen and also it reflects the detected object on the radar screen with the distance measured from the object. VI. METHODOLOGYSince, we are using Arduino for my project Obstacle Detection Radar and I have to integrate Ultrasonic Sensor with Arduino Board. An Ultrasonic Sensor consists of three wires. One for Vcc, second for GND and the third for pulse signal. The ultrasonic sensor is mounted on the servo motor and both of them further connected to the Arduino board. The ultrasonic sensor uses the reflection principle for its working. When connected to the Arduino, the Arduino provides the pulse signal to the ultrasonic sensor which then sends the ultrasonic wave in forward direction. Hence, whenever there is any obstacle detected or present in front, it reflects the waves which are received by the ultrasonic sensor. If detected, the signal is sent to the Arduino and here we have to capture the data from Arduino from ports and receive the data in Processing software to the PC/laptop that shows the presence of the obstacle on the rotating RADAR screen with distance and the angle at which it has detected.VII. RECEIVE DATA FROM ARDUINO IN PROCESSINGMy main aim was to find a way to listen to what our Arduino is sending. In initial phases, I started to listen string “HELLO WORLD” in Processing Environment and drew it on Sketch which was being sent from Arduino port. After a lot of work, we started to receive large data and process it on Sketch. Luckily, Processing comes with a Serial library. I imported some libraries 4import processing.serial.*; // imports library for serial communicationimport java.awt.event.KeyEvent; // imports library for reading the data from the serial portimport java.io.IOException;So as to tune in to any serial correspondence we need to get a Serial object (any factor can be chosen to store the value), which gives us a chance to listen in on a serial port on our PC for any approaching information.. We also need a variable to receive the actual data coming in. Just like Arduino has setup() and loop(), Processing has setup() and draw() (instead of loop). For our setup() method in Processing, we’re going to find the serial port our Arduino is connected to and set up our Serial object to listen to that port. In our draw() loop, we’re going to listen in on our Serial port . VII. RECEIVE DATA FROM ARDUINO IN PROCESSINGMy main aim was to find a way to listen to what our Arduino is sending. In initial phases, I started to listen string “HELLO WORLD” in Processing Environment and drew it on Sketch which was being sent from Arduino port. After a lot of work, we started to receive large data and process it on Sketch. Luckily, Processing comes with a Serial library. I imported some libraries 4import processing.serial.*; // imports library for serial communicationimport java.awt.event.KeyEvent; // imports library for reading the data from the serial portimport java.io.IOException;So as to tune in to any serial correspondence we need to get a Serial object (any factor can be chosen to store the value), which gives us a chance to listen in on a serial port on our PC for any approaching information.. We also need a variable to receive the actual data coming in. Just like Arduino has setup() and loop(), Processing has setup() and draw() (instead of loop). For our setup() method in Processing, we’re going to find the serial port our Arduino is connected to and set up our Serial object to listen to that port. In our draw() loop, we’re going to listen in on our Serial port . IX. TESTING OF US SENSOR AND DISPLAY OF RADAR When the object is detected by US Sensor, It will be displayed onto the display screen in the form of processing platform in the form of Radar Display. The soonest the Ultrasonic sensor detects the object by throwing burst of waves, the soonest it sends the signal to Arduino which in turn sends the signal to laptop through the USB port. Hence, I tested all these outputs and scenarios during testing phase whether the observed values and objects are correct or have some peculiar stats. For this, I used unit testing to test each and every component that falls under my role. This includes the testing of Ultrasonic module to test if it detects which it does recognize. Same falls for LCD if it shows the red area after detecting the object and from how much distance is starts to detect object which is very necessary.X. PROBLEMS FACEDSince, electronic components when used to form any circuit require some amount of troubleshooting to make the circuit work according to our expectations including wires and understanding of Hardware Architecture and pins of equipment used in Obstacle Detection Radar. In our project, there were some problems that we had to deal with. Listening to the data that was being sent from Arduino was another problem encountered during project which I managed to solve by initially receiving to the small data in the form of strings and then subsequently started listening to the actual intended data and showing it on display. With time to time, I faced problems in different facets of project but eventually got successful in fixing the errors and problems. The intended aim was to understand the technicalities and working behind the hardware modules and overall integration with the sensor, arduino and receiving the sent data and represent it onto radar screen.XI. CONCLUSIONIn this project, I have attempted to use ultrasonic sensor for implementation of RADAR and got results that exceeds our intended expectations. The basic system is created for preventing collisions of aircrafts in aviation industry and in automobile industry to prevent vehicles and self-driving cars. Further, this project gave me the overall logic behind US Sensor and Arduino, Receiving the data from Arduino and transfers it in the graphical representation. With some enhancements the system can be used for any other real time purposes for detection. With the day to day enhancements in the technologies now adays, this project would be helpful in detecting the object as a small added module in behemoth projects used in industries.XII. APPLICATIONSBelow are some of the areas in which this project is being used on a larger scale as per the requirements for any industry which want to adopt this project for their own use. For example Air Traffic Control System – all aircrafts are equipped with built in radar devices that warn an aircraft or other obstacles in or approaching their path, visualize weather information, and give accurate altitude readings, assist pilots in landing and takeoff for safe flights. In Naval Applications – Marine radars are used in locating the other ships in sea or underwater to prevent colliding with each other and adopt safe routes. Also, it helps captains to locate the islands or lightships. Meteorological Applications – Another application in Meteorological application for predicting weather forecasting.XIII. FUTURE SCOPE OF PROJECTThe main idea of making an Obstacle Detection Radar attracted me while viewing the technology being used in Aviation in Air Traffic Controllers, Aircrafts, be it Navy or Air force. Now a days, this technology is also being used in Automobile Industries implementing features like automated/driverless parking systems, collision prevention during driving when driver falls asleep. The automobile industry is specially giving focus on it by the great names like AUDI, Volkswagen and Tesla. Driverless cars are in prototype phases by Google, Uber, and Prius. This project can be used anywhere and can be integrated with any existing system from bicycle to aircraft.