– At present waste
management is a major concern in the metropolitan cities of the developing and
developed countries. As the population is growing, the garbage is also
increasing day by day. Garbage management is
becoming a global problem. Due to the lack of care and
attention by the
authorities the garbage bins are mostly seem to be overflowing. It has to be
taken into care by corresponding authorities and should think what method can
be followed to overcome this. This
huge unmanaged accumulation of garbage is polluting the environment, spoiling
the beauty of the area and also leading to the health hazard. To overcome this
situation an efficient smart municipal waste management system has to be
developed. In this era of Internet, Internet of Things (IOT) can be used
effectively to manage this waste as many effective methods can be found out
easily. This is the survey paper which involves the various ideas to solve this
problem using some algorithms that can be easily implemented.
Key Words: Internet of things (IOT), Smart
smart cities represents hot topic in terms of improving living conditions. As one of the application of Smart City, Waste
Management in a city is a formidable challenge faced by the public
IoT is a network of sensors where data is
exchanged, using different connectivity protocols, with systems.
Waste is defined as any material in which something valuable is not
being used or is not usable and represents no economic value to its owner, the
waste generator. Depending on the physical state of the waste, they are
categorized as solid waste and wet waste. With the proliferation of population,
the scenario of cleanliness with respect to waste management has become
crucial. Waste management includes planning, collection, transport, treatment,
recycle and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. The
existing waste management system, where the garbage is collected from the
streets, houses and other establishments on quotidian basis, is not able to
effectively manage the waste generated. Our work focuses on the
optimization algorithms for Smart City management and more specifically this
paper deals with municipal waste collection procedure. Nowadays,
the garbage-truck needs to pick-up all garbage cans even if they are empty. To
avoid such challenges faced we are proposing a system where efficient routes
are defined shortest route to collect the garbage filled bins.
The garbage management
in cities should be effectively and efficiently implemented. The various
proposals were put forward and some of them are already implemented. But we
cannot considered it as an effective one. So a survey was done among different
proposals and this survey paper includes survey among different methods for
smart garbage management in cities using IoT.
This section discusses about the existing approaches in the field of
smart waste management.
Insung Hong et.al 1 has suggested that
replacing SGS(Smart Garbage Sensor) instead of RFID garbage collecting system
helps to improve their energy efficiency up to 16% and can reduce the food
waste reduction .Inside the SGS they have installed SGBs (Smart Garbage Bins)
to control the energy efficiency of the system.
Dario Bonino et.al 2 has suggested that it
provides end – to – end security and privacy that is built upon dynamic
federation smart city platform. Its benefits is that it has good dependability
and has resilience on failure of a system over a particular month. It focuses
on the collection of wastages and accomplishment of ontology method.
A lvaro Lozano Murciegoet.al 3 has
suggested that to collect the dustbins that are been filled using a truck. The main
advantage is that it reduces the fuel cost of the trucks rather than travelling
a long distance it makes the path simpler and easier to reach the dustbin using
TheodorosAnagnostopoulos et.al 4 has
suggested that it first starts with an assumption that the smart city must
include the IoT base. It uses dynamic scheduling. It is based on the fact that
the garbage will be collected only when it is fully filled or the maximum
capacities of the dustbins are filled.
2.1 RECENT RESEARCH IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COLLECTION
The constant growth of
population urban areas brings increasing municipal solid waste generation with
socio-economic and environmental impact. Municipal solid waste management –
source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transportation, processing
and recovery, and last but not least, disposal, are today current city
challenges. The mathematical programming and processes have been already used
for optimizing the municipal waste management and transfer system. The waste
collection and garbage-truck allocation problem could be solved by traditional
mathematical methods such a linear methods. However, the linear methods show
insufficient efficiency in some more difficult cases of waste collection. The
large amount of variables was the reason for large computation time. The recent
research works use mostly the heuristic solutions and methods dealing with the
municipal waste collection as with a Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). Dealing
with problem formulation, the effectiveness of optimization and computation is
based on input parameters and specific problem implementation. Only few works
tried to use evolutionary algorithm to deal with implementation and
optimization of waste collection problem as the TSP defines. These works use Ant
Colony algorithm. However, the genetic algorithm was also proven as a very effective
tool to deal with TSP of various implementations, but not in the specific
implementation of waste collection 4.
faced while working with wireless sensor networks (WSN)
Energy – Sensors require power for various operations.
Energy is consumed in data collection, data method, and
data communication. Batteries providing power
need to be changed or recharged once they have been consumed. Sometimes it
becomes powerful to recharge or change the batteries as a result of demographic
conditions. The most
critical research challenge for the WSN
analysts is to design,
develop and implement energy adequate hardware
and software protocols for WSNs.
2. Self-management – Once
when WSN are deployed it should be capable of working without help of human intervention.
3. Security – Confidentiality
is required while data transmission otherwise there is possibility of
Quality of Service – Quality of service is the level of service
provided by the sensor networks to its users. WSN are being used in various
real time applications, so it is mandatory for the network providers to offer sensible
Tolerance – Sensor network should be able to work even if any node fails whereas the
Network is operational. Network should be in a position to adapt by changing its
property in case of any difficulty.
Limited Memory and Storage Space – A sensor is a small
device with low quantity of memory and storage space for the code. In order to
make an effective security mechanism, it is necessary to limit the code size of
the security algorithm.
The route planning and optimization is a well-researched area and
hundreds of intelligent transport systems have been developed already. There
are many projects aiming to provide an effective system for waste collection
purposes. In 7 an advanced routing and scheduling waste collection model is
proposed in eastern Finland, in which they use the guided variable
neighbourhood thresholding Meta heuristic. A geographical information system
transportation model for the solid waste collection and disposal is another technique.
A truck scheduling model for the solid waste collection has been proposed by
the city of Porto Alegre in Brazil. The aim of the research was to develop an optimal
schedule for the trucks on defined collection routes. In 8 a novel cloud
based approach is being employed. On board surveillance cameras for problem
reporting with a cloud DSS system and dynamic routing models are used and this
significantly increases the cost effectiveness, which is one of the important
criteria of the mart cities. A method is proposed to use the operations
research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles
servicing dumpster or skip type container. Here the waste collection problem is
reduced to classic TSP then to Concorde solve the problem. The system aims to minimize
the distance travelled and thereby helps in the reduction of vehicle wear. A
new method for optimizing the waste collection routes is developed based on
OSGeo software tools.
Path optimization Techniques
1. ArcGIS Network Analyst and Ant Colony
on Geo referential spatial
Facilitate modelling of realistic traffic condition and different scenarios.
GIS software used for finding shortest path
OS Geo software tool
Route planning and optimization software.
3. ALGORITHMS USED
Algorithms used in previous
papers for research work was done.
3.1 XML Parsing used for graph processing –
The XML parsing is used for
the graph (SVG) processing. After XML parsing.
3.2 Floyd- Warshall algorithm
The Floyd- Warshall
algorithm is applied to distance recalculation. This algorithm was chosen due
to the fact that we are using metric system and there the negative values of
edges are not used. The algorithm (Floyd-Warshall) also computes straight the
vertices distance, which is less time consuming than i.e. Dijkstra Algorithm
(which computes distances always for each vertex).
4. DIFFERENT APPROACHES
Fig -1: System Overview
There are some different
approaches in paper 9 the proposed system was based on waste data level of
garbage bins in metropolitan areas. The data was sent over the internet for
analyzing and processing. Everyday new data was collected and on that basis the
rate of waste level was calculated so as to predict the overflow of bins
before. Fig 1. Gives the overview of this approach.
This survey has been performed for collecting
the details of smart garbage management methods and to find out effective
methods which are useful for providing hygiene environment in cities. Our
solution is based on the idea of IoT infrastructure, which should provide
enough information to handle this Smart City issue more efficiently.
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BeomseokLee, JaekeunLee, Da ebeomJeong, and SehyunPark, “IoT-Based Smart
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Mohammed Aledhari, Moussa Ayyash, “Internet of Things: A Survey on Enabling
Technologies, Protocols and Applications” IEEE – 2015.
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4 Radek Fujdiak, Pavel Masek,
Petr Mlynek, Jiri Misurec, “Using Genetic Algorithm for Advanced Municipal
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Morajkar2, Maheshwar Gurav3,
Dishant Pandya4, Amol
Deshpande, “Smart Garbage
Management System” – March
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Teresa Delgado Alizo, Alexandre
Gilbert, MathaisAxling, HelenUdsen,
Jose Angel Carvajalsoto,
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Things for Smart Cities” IEEE 2015.
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IEEE – April 2015.
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Michael Jensenb, Morten Heniusa
Tahir Riazc, “Smart Waste Collection System Based
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Gabriel Villarrubia González,
Daniel Hernández de La Iglesia, Jorge
Revuelta Herrero and Juan Francisco De Paz
Santana, “Smart Waste
Collection Platform Based on
WSN and Route
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