Abstract”Free Software” is a concept which RichardStallman introduced it at first time. He used”Free” to show the free access to use, cope,develop, and publish the “Software”. Herequired an operating system to reach hispurpose, that he called it “GNU project”, sohe used “Linux” which created by LinusTorvalds. Then “GNU Linux” was appeared.After years Free Software was changed to”Open Source”. This paper gives an overviewof Open Source, and discuss relatedchallenges. We emphasize that although FreeSoftware can be improved, future work has totackle challenges such as software patent.Introduction”GNU Linux” and “Open Source” arecreated to follow the “Free Software”concept. The “Free” in this term doesnot mean price, it means that the codeis open and available for users. So usercan use, cope, change, improve, andpublish the code. Although “Hacker”is someone that loves programmingand interests on playful cleverness, butin the popular hacker means whobreaks laws 1. Hackers can improvethe software development by usingOpen Source concept. Because ofincreasing needs of software, it mustbe developed very quickly. RichardStallman introduced Free Software atfirst time. The “GNU project” is theterm that he called the product of thisconcept. He is the most importantperson who worked to develop it up tonow. The most important thing was tohave an operating system. When LinusTorvalds created an operating system,named it “Linux”, and made it freesoftware. So Stallman combined themand “GNU Linux” was created. Aftermany years the “Free Software” wasbe changed to “Open Source”.The rest of this paper is organized asfollows: at first section Free Softwareis introduced. The next section is aboutGNU Linux and Open Source creation.Section 3 is about cooperation forimprove the Open Source. Section 4presents the opportunity of OpenSource. Section 5 introduces someadvantages and disadvantages. Section6 review the challenges that we have infuture. Section 7 concludes the paper.Free Software”Free Software” is a concept createdby Richard Stallman. The term “free”in free software isn’t about price. Itmeans four kind of freedom for thesoftware user:? You have the freedom to run theprogram as you want, for anypurpose.? You have the freedom to studyhow the program works andmodify the program to suit yourneeds.? You have the freedom toredistributes copies, either gratisor for a fee.? You have the freedom toimprove the program and thecommunity can benefit fromyour improvement.”Open source” has the same meaningof Free Software and “GNU Linux” isthe product of Open Source 1.What is GNU Linux?Richard Stallman who created theconcept of “free software”, startedworking at the MIT ArtificialIntelligence Lab in 1971 and hebecame part of a software sharingcommunity 1. This term didn’t existat that time. But in the early 1980s afterdigital revolution, the community wascollapsed. The modern computers ofthe era had their own operating system,but none of them were free softwareand programmers had to sign anondisclosure agreement even to getan executable copy. Stallman wantedto make the community once again.First of all an operating system wasneeded. A free operating system makethe community of cooperating hackersand you can invite anyone to join 1.So he worked on “Free Software”.Then “GNU project” was born whichis the product of Free Software.The GNU kernel was named GNUHurd, but making the Hurd worksolidly has stretched on for manyyears. In 1991, Linus Torvaldsdeveloped a Unix-compatible kerneland called it Linux. It was propriety atfirst, but in1992, he made it freesoftware. Combining Linux with thenot-quite-complete GNU systemresulted in a complete free operatingsystem 1. GNU Linux is an operatingsystem similar to Microsoft Windows,but it is entirely free. It isn’t onecompany’s product, but a number ofcompanies and groups of peoplecontribute to it 3.In 1998, when Stallman taught newusers about freedom, a part ofcommunity decided to say “OpenSource” instead of “Free Software”1. But Stallman prefer to call it “FreeSoftware”, because open sourceexpresses the potential to make highquality, powerful software, but theideas of freedom, community, andprinciple are purposes of FreeSoftware 3.”Free Software Foundation” (FSF)community was founded by Stallmanon 4 October 1985, where the freesoftware was sponsored 1. Some ofFSF activities such as GNU project,GNU licenses, GNU press, freesoftware directory… 4Getting together to improveOpen sourceFor making an open source projectmany groups of people try.Educational institutions, faculties andother institutions develop software fortheir purposes. Research institutions,commercial companies, usercollaborators, users and governmentget together to improve it2.When someone is intersted in aproblem, inquires about it with hisfriends. Some of them have thisproblem but, they do not have any ideato solve it. So they exchange theirknowlegde and create a drawing tosolve it. Project works to solve it untilsignificant results are reached. Theseresults are published that most peoplehave free access. Some of them havegood solutions, then they test them inmany aspects. After that they givemany good suggestions, which someof them are useful. At the end theproject developers help betterstrategies to solve the problem.Increasing needs forprogramingUsing digital technologies in every daylife is increasing. Internet. Intranet,mobile and internet of thins areexamples of this digital technologies.Also this increasing trend helpsproductivity improvement in businessprocesses. This improvement is asocial phenomenon, resultingimprovement in humam life, wellfareand has different aspects. Automation,integration and optimization ofprocesses can be achieved by thisdigital technology adoption 5.This wide adoption of digitaltechnologies means an icreasing needsfor software development. Softwarepatent and monopoly approaches canbe a barrier to this increasing needs.Open Source approach and GNULinux can help a lot in this regard.Advantages andDisadvantagesSome of the advantages anddisadvantages of Open Source are likefollowed.Advantages of open source:Planning in Open Source is informal.There is no one plan for wholeplanning process. There is not anydeadlines. The voluntary work andwork without pressure of full time areproductive. Many of Open Sourceprojects have this feature, so theyprovide new solutions. Enough timefor implement new solutions can helpssoftware development to improve.Disadvantages of open source:Although development of OpenSource can follow the informalplanning but, the project end isuncertain. Unclear end of projectsmake difficult to estimate neededresources and time.If open source project has hierarchicalmanagement levels, in order topreserve the control of the project,from one hand we need participation ofall levels. On the other hand thisparticipation will add the load of theproject. By this way the principal ofopen source planning can be a problem2.Challenges in futureSeveral challenges make the future ofOpen Source unclear. Sometimessolving them will require many years.The freedom must be protected fromany things. The following sectionsintroduce them:? Secret Hardware: Open sourcedeveloping requires availablestructures of computers and howthey work, but hardwaremanufactures for their ownbenefits keep hardwarespecifications secret more andmore.? Non free libraries: Inprogramming world libraries arevery necessary. A non-freelibrary that runs on freeoperating systems acts as a trapfor free software developers.The proprietary libraries arenon-free. It means that if librarymisses, the program won’t runanymore.? Software patents: The worstthreat that Open Source faces issoftware patents that putalgorithms and features offlimits to it for many years.? Free documentation: In anysoftware development,documentation is needed.Giving all users certainfreedoms is a matter. The mostimportant necessary in freeoperating system is not onlysoftware but also free manualsare more important1.ConclusionOpen source approach in softwaredevelopment is based on the concept offree software developed by Richard M.Stallman. GNU Linux based on thisapproach were provided to improvethe software development projects. Inthis projects cooperation betweendifferent user collaborations anddevelopers create efficiency. To run,cope, improve, and publish thesoftware in about last 50 years, helpedhuman life to become better. Humanlife is becoming more digitalized dayby day. It seems that we need easy andefficient ways of programing.Software patent and monopolyapproaches can be a barrier to thisincreasing needs. Open sourceapproach and GNU Linux can help alot in this regard. But there are somechallenges, Secret Hardware, Non freelibraries, Software patents and freedocumentation that need to thinkabout.

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