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afforestation etc.

Moreover, India government is setting up
two funds to mobilizing financial for mitigation and adaption with the current national
level. They funded over 2.6 billion USD in clean energy on mitigation and 55.6 billion
USD on adaptation. Government of India also created a series of actions which
is selected by using multiple development frameworks carefully. This concrete
action will show that the successive contribution is structural and definite.
Lastly, they also strengthen adaptive capacities of the vulnerable sector for
adaptability part.

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Challenge

It is very challenging for India to
achieve the target as they are over 30% of the global poor which has no access
to electricity. Secondly, the cost estimation for implementation of India is
higher compared with other developing nation. The Kyoto Protocol separated
developed and developing countries. Developed countries had stronger ability to
control their GHG emissions but developing countries did not. Most of the
developing countries have fought hard to sustain since Kyoto. So, this led to
the emerging of countries like China and India is because developed countries
offsetting the economies of the reduction of emissions. Meeting the goal is undoubtedly
a costly affair. It requires the combination domestic budgets of private
sectors and international funding from developed country. For carbon taxation
and removal of subsidies from fossil fuels, the increase cost of carbon will
also have adverse effect on energy intensive business if ignored. Lastly,
energy consumption levels in India 760 KWh/cap are below the average 3101
KWh/cap. India undoubtedly must improve the production and consumption of
energy to develop the country. Calculating and predicting the uncertainties of energy
needs is challenging because the rapid change of economy in India due to three
structural transition: demographic, infrastructure and urbanisation.

 

Mitigation

1.     
Creating
a safer, smarter and sustainable green transportation network
– shifting transportation from road to rail freight
– expanding public transport such as metro rail to provide liveable cities and
reduce emission
– reducing the amount of diesel operated traffic as diesel is low efficient
– installing solar power on dedicated freight corridors (DFCs) such as freight
and coaching service locomotive to reduce the consumption of fuel
– constructing MRT as to focus on transport people than vehicle
– constructing solar power toll plazas
– green highway (plantation) tree-line along both side of high ways
– facilitating international communication by highways, government of India
signed Motor Vehicle Agreement to promote safe, economical efficient and
environmentally sound road transport in the sub-region and support regional
integration
– promoting fast adoption and manufacturing of hybrid and electric vehicle

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