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   After this experiment was concluded we were
able to determine acidity levels and alkalinity levels of our mixed mud slurry
sample one and sample two so as to determine the next line of procedures to be
carried out in order to prevent corrosion, all results were ensured accurate
during recording.

CONCLUSION

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   We also avoided the use of distilled water
for any reason, only fresh water was made use of.

   We ensured the glass probe was never
completely dry, it was kept partly moist so as to give accelerated accurate
results.

   Allowed time of a minute thirty was observed
so as to ensure accuracy of results during calibration of the pH meter and
litmus paper strips. Colors on the pH paper strips where carefully observed in
order to prevent inefficient values being recorded

   The pH paper was not dipped into the sample
rather it was placed upon the surface of the mud slurry so as to prevent over
saturation of the litmus paper strip.

DISCUSSION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Withstanding
a temperature of 28.1oC and a significant conductance value of -6.5.

After
some time was considered for the setup to stabilize, a value of 7.30pH was
observed

RESULTS

 

IV.           
The setup was then left to calibrate

III.           
The probe and the glass electrode were rinsed and cleaned
until dry before being immersed into the mud slurry sample present in the
beaker

  II.           
The pH meter was turned on

      I.           
A mixed sample 2 in a glass cylindrical beaker was taken to
be tested with the electric pH meter

SAMPLE 2 PROCEDURE WITH THE USE OF
THE PH METER: (SAMPLE 1 + 3g of SALT; CaCl)

 

 

 

 

And
a temperature reading of 27.8oC

After
a minute the pH value of sample 1 was stabilized at 9.01 pH

RESULTS

 

III.           
The probe and glass electrode were then wiped thoroughly then
dipped into the beaker containing our sample 1 mixture it was then left for
some time to calibrate

  II.           
After the sample has been poured into the beaker, we then
switch on the electric pH meter, the device is then adjusted to the desired
mode of use

      I.           
Above on page 8 describes how we arrived at mixing sample 1
containing 35g of bentonite and 25g of water

SAMPLE 1 PROCEDURE WITH THE USE OF
PH METER

 

 

FIGURE 2; A LABELLED DIAGRAM OF AN ELECTRIC
PH METER

    This
method is more likely preferred to the use of pH paper due to accuracy of
results.

   For a better understanding we break down the
function of this equipment, the pH meter is an electronic instrument that is
used to determine levels of acidity or alkalinity of fluid samples under
observation by calibrating the electromagnetic potential generated amongst the
glass electrode and probe on the meter.

ELECTROMETRIC
METHOD (USE OF THE PH METER)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The
litmus paper was observed to turn light green in color with an observed pH value
of 7 on the pH chart therefore the sample is regarded as neutral

RESULTS

 

IV.           
The litmus paper was observed to turn light green in color

III.           
A strip of pH paper was then placed on the surface of the
mixture

  II.           
All contents of the mixing cup were then poured into a cylindrical
beaker with the aid of a spatula

      I.           
3g of salt was then added to our mud slurry sample 1 to be
mixed with the electric mixer

SAMPLE 2 PROCEDURE WITH THE USE OF
PH PAPER: (SAMPLE 1 + 3g of SALT; CaCl)

 

A
pH value of 9 was then observed when compared to the hydrogen ion concentration
color chart

RESULTS

 

   v.           
A strip of litmus paper was then placed on the surface of the
mud slurry until there was an observed change I color; slightly dark green

iv.           
We then poured the mud slurry into a small cylindrical glass
beaker

iii.           
We then mixed the bentonite sample and water to give a smooth
mud slurry without the presence of lumps or air bubbles so as to ensure
accuracy

   ii.           
We then added the 35g of bentonite to 25g of water measured
with a plastic cylindrical graduated cup, the mixture was then transferred to a
metal mixing cup to be mixed with an electric mixer

      i.           
We first carefully weighed 35g of bentonite on a sheet of
paper to be weighed on the electric scale, after the measured weight was
recorded, the measured sample was then set aside to be mixed

SAMPLE 1 PROCEDURE WITH THE USE OF
PH PAPER

 

 

FIGURE 1; PH PAPER AND A PRINTED SCALE

 The title above gives away the main ingredient
in this method, that is the use of pH paper also known as litmus paper which
has been laced with a coloring material which reveal various hues when
introduced to aqueous fluids or rather liquids of any type, the resulted change
of colour from the pH paper determines levels of acidity, basicity or
neutrality when the pH scale is referenced.

COLORIMETRIC METHOD (USE OF PH PAPER)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·     
Cylindrical graduated cup

·     
Electric weigh scale

·     
spatula

·     
pH meter

·     
Glass beaker

·     
Mixing cup

·     
Electric mixer

·     
pH scale chart

·     
Universal pH paper

APPARATUS USED IN THIS EXPERIMENT

 

 

·     
Electrometric method (the use of the electronic pH meter)

·     
Colorimetric method (with the use of pH paper)

  
There are basically 2 methods of checking hydrogen ion concentration
levels which include;

  
pH levels of fluids below 7 on the hydrogen ion concentration scale are
considered acidic whereas fluids taken to be greater than 7 are basic i.e high
alkaline content, now fluids which stop at 7 are regarded as pure water
therefore neutral.

  
The relevance of this experiment to petroleum engineering students is to
determine levels of acidity in drilling fluids so as to prevent incidents of
corrosion on bottom hole assembly equipment and other metal gear in assistance
of petroleum production.

  
Basically, pH represents hydrogen ionic concentration levels which are
observed on a numbered scale showing numerical levels of either acidity or
alkalinity of the sampled drilling fluid substance under study.

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·     
FIGURE 2; A LABELLED DIAGRAM OF AN
ELECTRIC PH METER

·     
FIGURE 1; PH PAPER AND A PRINTED
SCALE

 

LIST OF DIAGRAMS

 

 

 

 

 

5.  DISCUSSION AND
CONCLUSION………………13

–SAMPLE 2 PROCEDURE AND RESULTS….12

   
–SAMPLE 1 PROCEDURE AND RESULTS……11

4.  ELECTROMETRIC
METHOD…………………….10

–SAMPLE 2 PROCEDURE AND RESULTS….9

–SAMPLE 1 PROCEDURE AND RESULTS….8     

3.  COLORIMETRIC
METHOD……………………….7

2.  APPARATUS USED………………………………….6

1.  INTRODUCTION…………………………………….5

CHAPTERS

 

LIST
OF DIAGRAMS…………………………………………4

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………2

TITLE
PAGE…………………………………………………….1

                                                                          
PAGES

CONTENT REPORT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This
experiment was conducted in order to determine acidity and alkalinity levels of
our mixed mud slurry sample with and without an additive. That is; calcium
chloride, the essence of this practice is to ensure our drilling mud is well
efficient with the balanced essentials so as to avoid drilling problems down
the wellbore such as wall sticking, equipment damage.

ABSTRACT

 

DATE SUBMITTED: 28 – 1 – 18

DATE PERFORMED: 26 – 1 – 18

 

GROUP: F

 

MATRIC NUMBER: 15CN033283

 

OKOJIE
JEFFREY

THIS REPORT WAS ORGANIZED AND PUT
TOGETHER BY:

 

EXPERIMENT
6: HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION (PH)

 

LABORATORY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

 

COVENANT UNIVERSITY CANAANLAND, OTA
OGUN STATE

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