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AIDS is actually the outcome where the main hacker of our immune system is a lentivirus(ICTV, 2014) known as HIV. It describes a drastic consequence where immune system is prone to fail performing its prior activity. According to CDC, “HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment.”(https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html, no date)  Average endurance time after infection with HIV is expected to be 9 to 11 years, without treatment, relaying on various HIV subtype. (Unaids/Who, 2007)

 

 

Pathology of HIV and mode of action

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Like other Retroviruses HIV virion is unable to replicate outside of host cells. The pathogenesis of HIV infection is depended on virus life cycle, host cellular and physiological conditions, and virus load in infected patient. After entry inside the body, virus particle is attracted to T cell with CD4 surface receptor molecules where fusion results to a susceptible cell membrane or by endocytosis. Their presence on cells is crucial to bind of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp120), inducing infectious condition. Initial binding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus to the CD4 receptor is influenced by conformational changes in the gp120 subunit.(Chan and Kim, 1998)(Wyatt and Sodroski, 1998).  Dendritic cells can also be affected by other route. They have an important role by transmitting HIV to T-cells when the virus is trapped in the mucosa by DCs (Lee et al., 2001)

 HIV infection can be manually characterized by declining peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocyte counts. This next feature of the AIDS syndrome is related to infection in microglia and macrophages. In primary HIV infection, only around 50% of infected individuals are symptomatic with fever and lymphadenopathy. Seroconversion follows an asymptomatic period of 2-15 years. During this time, viral replication is continued to progress at a high rate of up to 1010infectious virions per day, that leads approximately 108-109 lymphocytes/day being attacked, most of which are replaced almost as fast. The rate of CD4 lymphocyte depletion is not more rapid than observed.(Picker, 2006)

 This rapid turnover of HIV and its vivid diversity represents the difficulty in producing anti-retroviral drugs with long-term efficacy, and is one of many problems facing the development of an effective vaccine against HIV.(Gallo, 2005)

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