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Analysis of the case study

–         
Jae is likely to have formed an insecure
attachment (avoidant or resistant)

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o  
Shown where the case study states “removed from
his birth mother at 9 months” and Jae is now 3 years old

o  
This means he has been away from primary care
giver for more than 6 months before the age of 5 – Bowlby’s maternal
deprivation hypothesis

o   This
states that 6 months or longer separation has shown to cause damage to the child’s
development in many ways e.g. cognitive, intellectual, social and emotional

–         
Case study states removal was “due to her
ongoing addiction and mental health issues. This resulted in Jae being left for
long periods of time on his own, being fed irregularly and having little
stimulation (such as play and baby talk)

o  
This shows child may have suffered privation,
rather than deprivation, which means he would have never formed any kind of
attachment

o  
Privation has been shown to have a worse, more
long-term affect than deprivation – shown by study carried out by Rutter et al
(1998) whereby the orphans were adopted and even after 6 years where shown to
have Disinhibited Attachment Disorder

o   Strange
situation where children where neglected/abused – found only 5-13% had a secure
attachment, carried out by Crittenden (1988)

–         
Case study states “Jae is shyer than other
children and would normally play on his own” this shows that Jae is withdrawn,
which is known to be an affect of having an insecure or no attachment

Advice to perspective adoptive parents

Day care

–         
Would advise to try and look after Jae
themselves, rather than sending them to day care as there is evidence to show
that children with secure attachments cope with this better (Howard et al,
2011).

o  
As Jae has an insecure/possibly none, its likely
he will not deal with being looked after by someone unknown t him very well

–         
If they are unable to do so, e.g. because of
work commitments, illness etc, would advise to let Jae be cared for by a family
member that he is already familiar with, if there isn’t one, then let Jae get
to know one

o  
Also try and ensure it is the same person each
time, causing him minimal distress (Gunnar et al, 1991)

–         
Bates et al (1994) shows children who are put
into day care more likely to become less socially skilled (sample of 600
5-6year old boys)

–         
Belsky (1986-2006) and Field (1998) both show
children in day care more likely to become aggressive, have insecure
attachments and be less obedient

–         
If there is no other option to day care, ensure
that they run a key worker system to ensure Jae’s primary care giver in day
care will remain the same each time he attends, with groups of a small teacher
to child ratio, well-trained and permanent staff, structured day and ensure
minimal amount of time is spent there (impact of Bowlby’s attachment theory)

Although Bowlby states the effects of neglect/separation to be
long-lasting, Rutter proves that this is not always true. Deprived children
need enrichment to help them recover from trauma and develop into healthy
children, this would include:

1. Theraplay

–         
I would advise adoptive parents to enrol Jae
into Theraplay

–         
This is where children are played with in
certain ways that mirror how they should’ve been stimulated as a baby, but
without making them feel like one

–         
Examples:

o  
they can be rocked in a blanket to mirror being
rocked as a baby

o  
singing

–         
It is thought that by doing this, they are
giving them the stimulation that they would’ve missed out on as a baby from
(what was supposed to be) their primary care giver (mother/father) but didn’t
receive due to neglect/abuse

–         
Using Theraplay with children who’ve been
neglected has shown encourage them to be more outgoing, rather than withdrawn,
calmed down, cooperated more (The National Theraplay Institute) (Theraplay also
used by Hughes)

2. Therapeutic Parenting (PACE)

–         
This is used to give the child the feeling of
safety around their primary care giver that they may be wouldn’t have got as a
baby

–         
Hughes (2009) introduced PACE parenting, which
stands for:

o  
Playfulness

o  
Accepting

o  
Curiousity

o  
Empathy

–         
By introducing the above four into your
parenting, overtime it will help Jae to feel like he is in a secure, safe,
predictable and loving environment

–         
Important when dealing with Jae’s behaviour to
ask yourself questions linked with the above, for example

o  
Am I being playful?

o  
Am I accepting what Jae is doing?

o  
Am I asking questions?

o  
Am I putting myself in Jae’s shoes?

–         
Important to remain calm and not to blame, as
this will just bring back negative memories and emotions related to trauma in
Jae’s early life

–         
To enable the child to develop well, they need
safety – would advise adoptive parents to put in place some light rules for Jae
to follow in the house

–         
If Jae is triggered, it is important not to
isolate him (as this is what would have happened regularly when being cared for
by birth mother)

o  
An example of this is time-in, rather than
time-out, so that Jae will sit with the parents for five minutes and reflect on
what he has done, ensuring being empatheticAnalysis of the case study

–         
Jae is likely to have formed an insecure
attachment (avoidant or resistant)

o  
Shown where the case study states “removed from
his birth mother at 9 months” and Jae is now 3 years old

o  
This means he has been away from primary care
giver for more than 6 months before the age of 5 – Bowlby’s maternal
deprivation hypothesis

o   This
states that 6 months or longer separation has shown to cause damage to the child’s
development in many ways e.g. cognitive, intellectual, social and emotional

–         
Case study states removal was “due to her
ongoing addiction and mental health issues. This resulted in Jae being left for
long periods of time on his own, being fed irregularly and having little
stimulation (such as play and baby talk)

o  
This shows child may have suffered privation,
rather than deprivation, which means he would have never formed any kind of
attachment

o  
Privation has been shown to have a worse, more
long-term affect than deprivation – shown by study carried out by Rutter et al
(1998) whereby the orphans were adopted and even after 6 years where shown to
have Disinhibited Attachment Disorder

o   Strange
situation where children where neglected/abused – found only 5-13% had a secure
attachment, carried out by Crittenden (1988)

–         
Case study states “Jae is shyer than other
children and would normally play on his own” this shows that Jae is withdrawn,
which is known to be an affect of having an insecure or no attachment

Advice to perspective adoptive parents

Day care

–         
Would advise to try and look after Jae
themselves, rather than sending them to day care as there is evidence to show
that children with secure attachments cope with this better (Howard et al,
2011).

o  
As Jae has an insecure/possibly none, its likely
he will not deal with being looked after by someone unknown t him very well

–         
If they are unable to do so, e.g. because of
work commitments, illness etc, would advise to let Jae be cared for by a family
member that he is already familiar with, if there isn’t one, then let Jae get
to know one

o  
Also try and ensure it is the same person each
time, causing him minimal distress (Gunnar et al, 1991)

–         
Bates et al (1994) shows children who are put
into day care more likely to become less socially skilled (sample of 600
5-6year old boys)

–         
Belsky (1986-2006) and Field (1998) both show
children in day care more likely to become aggressive, have insecure
attachments and be less obedient

–         
If there is no other option to day care, ensure
that they run a key worker system to ensure Jae’s primary care giver in day
care will remain the same each time he attends, with groups of a small teacher
to child ratio, well-trained and permanent staff, structured day and ensure
minimal amount of time is spent there (impact of Bowlby’s attachment theory)

Although Bowlby states the effects of neglect/separation to be
long-lasting, Rutter proves that this is not always true. Deprived children
need enrichment to help them recover from trauma and develop into healthy
children, this would include:

1. Theraplay

–         
I would advise adoptive parents to enrol Jae
into Theraplay

–         
This is where children are played with in
certain ways that mirror how they should’ve been stimulated as a baby, but
without making them feel like one

–         
Examples:

o  
they can be rocked in a blanket to mirror being
rocked as a baby

o  
singing

–         
It is thought that by doing this, they are
giving them the stimulation that they would’ve missed out on as a baby from
(what was supposed to be) their primary care giver (mother/father) but didn’t
receive due to neglect/abuse

–         
Using Theraplay with children who’ve been
neglected has shown encourage them to be more outgoing, rather than withdrawn,
calmed down, cooperated more (The National Theraplay Institute) (Theraplay also
used by Hughes)

2. Therapeutic Parenting (PACE)

–         
This is used to give the child the feeling of
safety around their primary care giver that they may be wouldn’t have got as a
baby

–         
Hughes (2009) introduced PACE parenting, which
stands for:

o  
Playfulness

o  
Accepting

o  
Curiousity

o  
Empathy

–         
By introducing the above four into your
parenting, overtime it will help Jae to feel like he is in a secure, safe,
predictable and loving environment

–         
Important when dealing with Jae’s behaviour to
ask yourself questions linked with the above, for example

o  
Am I being playful?

o  
Am I accepting what Jae is doing?

o  
Am I asking questions?

o  
Am I putting myself in Jae’s shoes?

–         
Important to remain calm and not to blame, as
this will just bring back negative memories and emotions related to trauma in
Jae’s early life

–         
To enable the child to develop well, they need
safety – would advise adoptive parents to put in place some light rules for Jae
to follow in the house

–         
If Jae is triggered, it is important not to
isolate him (as this is what would have happened regularly when being cared for
by birth mother)

o  
An example of this is time-in, rather than
time-out, so that Jae will sit with the parents for five minutes and reflect on
what he has done, ensuring being empathetic 

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