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Governmental Techniques in the Ancient World
Throughout history, many techniques have been used for organizing society. Experimentation with different styles primarily took place in the ancient Mediterranean world. Athenian democracy, Hebrew temple state, Hellenic city-states, Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman Republic, and the Christian Roman Empire were all major forms of governance, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. To determine which of these forms was successful, it is impotent to look at each form's chronological development.
The Hebrew State began as a loose confederation of twelve tribes.A tribe's elders ruled it, and while there was intermarriage between tribes, there was no real political connection. They shared common religion, language and culture, however they did not owe allegiance to one ruler.
The roots of the Hebrew tribes lay in myth. Jacob, a patriarch of Judaism, is said to have had twelve sons, each of whom begot a tribe of people. Taking into account the legendary characteristics of each son, each tribe had specific traits. For example, the tribe of Levy were the priests of the Jews. They owned no land, and survived on the tithes of the people. The tribe of Dan were a seafaring people; their ancestral land lay on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. These twelve groups of people were by no means one nation, they raided each other occasionally, and there were often disputes as to boundaries and land rights.
In the eleventh century B.C.E., an outside threat, eminent invasion by the Philistines, drove the Hebrews to formalize their tribal ties under one leader, Saul. With the defeat of the Philistines, Saul managed to keep control over the tribes, unifying them for his successor, the warrior-poet David. Saul and David had forged the beginnings of a kingdom that would see its true glory in the tenth century B.C.E., under David's son Solomon.
Under Solomon, the Temple State tr…

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