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1. Mediterranean Sea- The body of water that along with the Aegean Sea surrounds the Greek peninsula.
2. peninsula- Land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
3. Crete and Rhodes- The largest of the Aegean islands.
4. sea travel- How the Greeks developed links with other societies. Their major vessel was the trireme, a ship powered by many oarsmen.
5. Phoenician alphabet- Developed around 900BC, it was thefirst “simple” alphabet with only 22 symbols. It greatly influenced our alphabet.
6. polis- The independent city-states of ancient Greece.
7. Sparta- A polis of Greece that is remembered for it’s strict, harsh military lifestyle. Boys began military training at age seven. Girls were trained to defend their polis and to run the family estates.
8. Athens- The Greek polis where freedom and new ideas were welcome. The world’sfirst democratic government was formed there. It differed greatly from Sparta, but they united to battle the Persians.
9. agora- The central marketplace of Athens. Food, pottery, cloth, jewelry, and perfumes were some of the items sold. People would gather there to talk about politics and life. Travelers would come from around the “Aegean World” to sell there goods.
10. Parthenon-(built ca. 500BC) The most famous structure of ancient Greece. A temple built on a hill-top fortress in Athens called the Acropolis. It ‘s been called one of the most beautiful buildings on earth.
11. Battle of Marathon- (490BC) Persian King Darius sent 25,000 soldiers to Greece. He wanted to enslave the Greeks.They landed at Marathon, about 26 miles from Athens, and were welcomed by 10,000 angry Athenian troops. Athens defeated Persia.Darius vowed revenge and ten years later invaded again and slaughtered the Spartan army.
12. monarchy- A system of government ruled by a king or queen.
13. tyranny- A form of government where all the power is in the hands of one individual called a dictator.

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