refer to Paleo-Indians as the earliest Americans. This ancient group of people
set the basis of the Native American lifestyle. Paleo-Indians traveled in bands
which could contain up to seventy people. While in the bands, the Paleo-Indians
were exposed to innovative ideas, religious ceremonies, and goods. Due to the
many band encounters, Paleo-Indians have developed a diverse culture.

Aztecs developed a huge empire in Mesoamerica and South America. The Aztec
empire was the first empire that rose to challenge nearby states in South
America and Mesoamerica. The Aztecs migrated from the north and began to live
on the shore of Lake Texcoco. While living as subjects of the locals, the
Aztecs overthrew their rulers in 1428. One the Aztecs’ rulers were overthrown,
the Aztecs began to conquer cities near the lake began to expand near their
territory near the Gulf Coast. The Aztecs began to increase their food
production to support the fast-growing population. The Aztecs created
artificial islands to grow food.

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Inca empire was the second empire to developed rapidly in the Western
Hemisphere. The Incas began to conquer societies from the Andes. The Incas were
able produce and distribute crops at a fast pace. Similar to the Aztecs, the
Incas are known for engineering irrigation systems in order to grow crops. The Incas
also perfected different preservation techniques, constructed road and bridge
networks, and built large store-houses.

culture was developed by early societies in the East. The Mississippian culture
contained thousands of people and mostly formed around plazas. The religious
ceremonies of the Mississippian culture focused on worshipping the sun to
promote agricultural fertility. The Mississippian culture believed that the
chiefs were related to the sun. Whenever a chief died, his servants and wives
were killed to accompany him in the afterlife. Due to the Mississippian culture’s
vast trade and production, it began to overshadow that of the Hopewell and
Adena peoples.

Point was a town that was located on the lower Mississippi River. In 1200 B.C.E,
the population contained of about five thousand people. The town was the hub of
a large economic and political unit. The town imported materials such as
quartz, copper, obsidian, and crystal to redistribute to nearby settlements. Poverty
Point thrived for three centuries and then it began to contract, the reasons
are still unknown today.

Hopewell culture originated from the Adena culture. When the upper-class of the
Hopewell culture died, they were buried with pearls, copper ornaments, quartz,
the sheets of mica, or other sacred substances. These substances came from
locales in America east of the Rocky Mountains. Due to Hopewell’s trade networks,
Hopewell’s religious and technological influences spread to communities extremely
far away.

was a settlement that contained about twenty thousand people. Cahokia dominated
the Mississippi Valley for about two and a half centuries. Shortly after 1200
C.E, Cahokia and other valley centers experienced food shortages. The scarce resources
caused fierce competition. The competition led to warfare and crippled Cahokia
and its allies. The survivors fled to prairies and west of the lower valleys of
the plains.

culture emerged after Native Americans began farming in the Gila and Salt River
valleys of southern Arizona. The people of the Hohokam culture built irrigation
canals that helped them harvest two crops a year. The Hohokam created large work
forces to construct the canals. The Hohokam built permanent towns, which consisted
of hundreds of inhabitants. Even though many towns remained independent, some
joined confederations where several towns were linked by canals.

Pueblo culture originated in 1 C.E on the border where Utah, Colorado, New
Mexico, and Arizona meet, also known as the Four Corners. Near 700 C.E, Ancestral
Pueblos began to harvest crops, live in permanent villages, and create pottery.
They soon began to expand and became the most powerful group of people in the
Southwest. Ancestral Pueblo culture is known for it’s architecture. The
villages of Ancestral Pueblo culture contained substantial complexes of storage
rooms, apartments, and kivas.

families in some Native American societies have the women take precedence over
the men. During marriage, the husband moves in with his wife’s extended family.
The main male in a child’s life was not the father, but the mother’s oldest
brother. In other Native American societies, the men’s extended family was
primary, and others did not distinguish the status of male and female family
lines. Native American societies usually considered a homicide a situation to
be resolved by the extended families of the victim and the culprit. 

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