One of the most increasing disease in the western world today is diabetes. Many millions suffer from the disease and the number is growing tremendously. The reason behind growing of this disease is most the lifestyle in western world, with lots of unhealthy fast food. Diabetes is caused by two main factors, the pancreas not being able to produce enough insulin or the cells not responding to the insulin produced by the pancreas. Since this is a large problem many researchers try to find methods for detecting and curing the disease. One of the approaches to diagnosis and treating is the glucose-insulin pump system. This document illustrates the important design approach mathematical model and design decisions that were made during the production of the insulin pump simulator.
“Insulin Pump Simulator” is a software control system for a portable, automated insulin pump which is used by diabetics to administer and inject insulin as required in patient’s body. This personal insulin pump is an external device that function as an artificial pancreas.
It uses a sensor to measure the blood sugar level at timely intervals and then injects insulin to maintain the blood sugar at a normal level. We are using readings from the sensor and the system automatically measures the level of glucose in the sufferer’s body. Consecutive readings are compared. If system indicate that the level of glucose is rising continuously then insulin is injected to counteract this rise. The ideal situation is a consistent level of blood sugar level that is within some ‘safe’ band.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows our body to use sugar from carbohydrates in the food that we eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps our blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).
Low Blood Sugar Level: In medical term it is called as Hypoglycemia. This condition is reached when the blood sugar level drops too low. It is very critical stage, in this low blood sugar level generates a fatal condition, which can result in diabetic coma and ultimately leads to death of sufferer.
High Blood Sugar Level: This is called hyperglycemia. It is an unsafe state, is caused when the blood sugar level remains too high. If it continues for Long-term then hyperglycemia condition causes many of the health problems which might include heart disease, eye, kidney, and damage of nerves. Most commonly diabetics fall into hyperglycemia category. In this phase insulin is manually or automatically injected inside the patient’s body to balance and maintain blood sugar level in safe state.
Safe Blood Sugar Level: This is a safe zone where the blood sugar level is within a safe band. This level can be compared to those in people without diabetes and can be referred to as the ideal band. In normal zone we do not inject any insulin.
Pancreas is the organ in our abdominal cavity that produces digestive enzymes which get released into the intestine and also release different hormones including insulin.
Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which raised the blood glucose level. It is produced in the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans in our pancreas. Glucagon can also be given by injection to reverse a severe hypo.
Glucose is a simple type of sugar that comes from the digestion of starch content food, sweet foods and from the liver that makes glucose.
Carbohydrates come from food that we digest daily. During digestion process carbohydrates are broken down into glucose. They are the main source of energy in our diet and include all sugars and starches.
Blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in our blood.
an extra amount of insulin taken to cover an expected rise in blood glucose, often it is related to a meal or snack.
Basal rate: The amount of insulin required to manage normal daily blood glucose fluctuations.
Diabetes is the condition in which the sufferers body does not properly process food properly for use as energy. Generally what food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. But when person has diabetes pancreases are not functioning properly to produce insulin to keep the blood sugar level in control at the same time when sugar level is very low it can’t produce enough glucagon to keep the sugar level balanced.
There are three main types of diabetes as follow:
Type 1 Diabetes
If person has type 1 diabetes, his/her body does not make insulin. Patient’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells in his/her pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is mostly diagnosed in children and young adults, also it can appear at any stage of life. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.
Type 2 diabetes
If person has type 2 diabetes, his/her body does not make or use insulin well. Type 2 diabetes can develop at any stage of life, even during childhood. Although, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes develops in some women at the time of pregnancy. Most of the time, this type of diabetes disappears after the birth of the baby. However, if person had gestational diabetes, she will have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Sometimes diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.
The aim of this project is to simulate the behavior of the Insulin Pump. That can be used to implement insulin and glucagon pump that can work in real time to prevent effects of diabetes on body. This is achieved by observing the blood sugar level under certain effects like food and increased physical work and according to this reading, insulin will be injected to keep the blood sugar level in the safe range level. We tried to design system which also covers maximum safety critical system aspect required to build a safe system. we have implemented a control algorithm for the insulin and glucagon pump to automate the delivery process. The algorithm works according to the glucose metabolic rate and determine the appropriate amount of insulin or glucagon to be inject into the body.