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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
2n=14 is an annual cereal crop of dry land

agriculture due to its ability to
tolerate drought, fluctuations in temperature, biotic and abiotic stresses. It
belongs to the family Poaceae and is considered to be the fourth most
important crop in the world after wheat, maize and rice. This crop has been
commercially grown for 1000 year now. The crop originated in the middle East
and in the lands of modern day Ethiopia. As a wild the grass it was used as
feed animals during early periods, but with the progress of civilization it was
domesticated.

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Barley was one of the first domesticated
grains
in the Fertile Crescent, an area of
relatively abundant water in Western Asia, and near the Nile  river of northeast Africa. The grain appeared
in the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat. Wild barley (H.
vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ranges from North Africa and Crete in the west, to Tibet in the east. The earliest evidence of
wild barley in an archaeological context comes
from the Epipaleolithic at Ohalo II at the southern
end of the Sea of Galilee. The remains
were dated to about 8500 BCE. The earliest domesticated
barley occurs at aceramic (“pre-pottery”) Neolithic sites, in the
Near East such as the Pre-Pottery
Neolithic B
layers of Tell Abu Hureyra, in
Syria. By 4200 BCE
domesticated barley occurs as far as in Eastern Finland.  Barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula
since the Early Mumun Pottery Period (circa
1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes.(wiki)  

 

 

 This barley produced worldwide in crop
years 2008-2009 to 2016-2017. In 2016-2017 crop year, barley production
amounted to approximately 148.03 million metric tons. In that year, Russia was
the second leading barley producer worldwide, with
the production amounting to 17.55 million metric tons(world grain.com). barley
production volume worldwide in 2016-2017, by country. In that year, Argentina
produced about 3.3 million metric tons of barley. Barley is grown on nearly
sixty million hectares of land worldwide, resulting in the production of
approximately 140 million metric tons of grain. The top ten barley producing
countries include Russia, Germany, Canada, Ukraine, France, Australia, the United Kingdom, Turkey, United
States, and Denmark. Barley
producers select the appropriate varieties to be grown and crop management
schemes to produce grain well suited to a particular end use.(encyclopedia.com
) .

 

 Barley has a long history of use as
human and animal food, health benefits and malting and brewing in many
countries around the world (Malcolmson, et al., 2005). Since pre-historic
times, barley was consumed primarily, as human food in the form of Cha-patti
and Sattu but due to alternate use of barley in field of brewing and
medicine industry, it is considered as highly needed crop of present era. From
nutritional point of view, barley grain is considered as superior grain over
other cereals due to its higher biological value and rich source of ?-glucon,
acetylcholine, thiamin, riboflavin, total dietary and water soluble digestible
fiber. Barley is also used in breakfast as soup. It is beneficial in treating
hyper cholesteremia (Anderson et al., 1990).

 

Its bran and bran oil have
medicinal value, which considerably reduce the serum cholesterol level in the
blood. (Arun kumar et al.,)  barley is grown for human consumption
where other grains do not grow well. When
consumed as grain, hulless barley is generally used because the absence of the
hull makes the product more palatable and easier to process. Barley can be
pearled, which removes the outer layers of the seed and the embryo, followed by
processing to produce small rounded pieces of the endosperm. Covered barley can
also be dehulled, milled, and polished to remove the bran layers, to produce a
rice like product. Pearled and polished barley are used in porridges and soups
and as rice substitutes. Other food uses include barley flakes, flour for
baking purposes (either alone or in mixtures with wheat flour) to produce
breads and crackers, grits, breakfast cereals, pilaf, noodles, and baby foods.
Lastly, some barley is used for the production of distilled spirits such as
whiskey, vodka, and gin, and for making vinegar and malted beverages.

 

It contains gluten, so barley
flour can be made into bread. More usually found in the shops as whole or pot
barley, or polished pearl barley, it is also possible to buy barley flakes or
kernels. The whole barley is more nutritious with 100g providing 10.5g protein,
2.1g fat, 69.3g carbohydrate, 4g fibre, 50mg folic acid, 6mg iron and 50mg
calcium. It can be cooked on its own (1:3 parts water for 45-60 minutes) as a
pleasant alternative to rice, pasta or potatoes, or added to stews. Malt
extract is made from sprouted barley grains. (Barley:a legacy from the Stone
Age)

 

barley is poor mans crop because
of its low input requirement and better adaptability to harsh environments,
like drought, salinity and alkalinity and marginal lands. Owing to its
hardiness, in many countries around the world, it is often considered the only
possible rainfed cereal crop under low input and stressful environments.  In any breeding programmed aiming at improving
yield, it is essential to know, the degree of association between yield and
other metric traits. Yield is complex character, which is contributed by many
independent characters and improvement in yield depends upon improvement in its
component characters. Correlation coefficient ensures the degree of
association, genetic or non genetic relationship between two or more characters
which forms the basis for selection. When change in one variable causes the
change in another variable, the variables are said to be correlated. This
association between the attributes is measured as “correlation coefficient”. If
the change is in same direction, the correlation is positive and if it is in
opposite direction, the correlation is negative. The value is zero when two
variables are not related.

 

Grain yield, being a complex
entity is subjected to environmental fluctuation and is largely dependent on interrelation
of various components. The understanding of genetic correlation usually helps
in finding out the phenotypiccharacter which are closely associated with seed
yield. Wright, (1921) suggested path analysis which provides a clear understanding
of the direct and indirect effect of various components attributing to the
expression of seed yield. A successful selection depends upon the information
on the genetic variability and association of morpho-agronomic traits with
grain yield (Binod et al. 2013). Desirable attributes along with higher yield
from two or more genotypes could be brought together through hybridization and
ultimately a new line, reflecting desirable attribute of the parents are
developed (Potla et al., 2013). Therefore, in view of these fact barley variety
evaluated in this study.

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