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Baseline: USProtections for Gun OwnershipRight to firearm possession by the 2nd AmendmentPermissive Regulations2008 Supreme Court Decision: District of Columbia v. Heller   Minimum Age: 18American gun culture – hunting https://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/united-statesHigh Level of Gun Ownership and High Gun Death RatesIn a 2007 Switzerland-based Small Arms Survey, the United States having less than 5% of the world population owns 30-50% of civilian-owned guns. 83-97 firearms per 100 peopleIn 2014, 10.54 gun deaths per 100,000 peopleSuicides are the highest proportion of gun deaths in the USHowever, gun homicide rates are high as wellAnnual avg homicides by gun: 11,564Annual avg of 21,307 suicides by gunAnnual avg of 544 accidentalAnnual avg of 468 legal interventionRegulations for Gun OwnershipThe National Firearms Act (NFA), places restrictions on the sale/ possession of short-barreled shotguns, machine guns, and silencersCannot possess a gun if:Were convicted of a crime punishable by being in prison for more than one yearAre addicted to, or illegally use, any controlled substanceHave been ruled mentally defective by a court, or are committed to a mental institutionAre an illegal alien living in the United States unlawfullyHave a restraining orderWere convicted of domestic violence in any court of a misdemeanorIncongruous in terms of state constitutions regulating gun laws more so than federal law Table: Civilian Firearm HoldingsCountryAveraged Total FirearmsPopulationLow est. Firearms per 100 PeopleHigh est. Firearms per 100 PeopleUnited States270,000,000300,000,00083.097.0Yemen11,500,00019,000,00032.090.0Italy7,000,00057,646,0006.917.3Switzerland3,400,0007,344,00031.061.0Sweden2,800,0008,956,00023.040.0Low gun violence: Switzerland, Sweden, Italy Switzerland: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21379912High Gun OwnershipAverage of 46 guns per 100 people (based on table above), which is the third highest in the world Guns are a part of a culture of independence and national securityAll healthy men between the ages of 18 and 34 are given an assault rifle as part of their obligatory military serviceSignificantly more people with army rifles than those with guns for hunting or self-defense compared to the U.S.Relatively Lacks Gun Control LawsA license is needed to possess a handgun, but not for any hunting/sport firearmsAfter the 2006 shooting of Corinne Rey-Bellet, Swiss law required that those wishing to purchase their assault rifles once service has ended must apply for a permit and have a valid reason for keeping the gunHeavy machine guns, automatic weapons, and silencers are all bannedOverall Low Gun ViolenceComparatively low rates of gun murders (1/7th that of the U.S.), but high rates of domestic homicides and suicidesFirearm murders are only slightly more common in Switzerland than most other European countriesHowever, firearm suicide is significantly more prevalent (Ajdacic-Gross et al., 2006).Swiss suicide data supports higher estimates of civilian ownership (Killias, 1993; Killias, Kesteren, and Rindlisbacher, 2001).”There is no point in taking the gun out of your home in Switzerland because it is illegal to carry a gun in the street.”Sweden: High Gun Ownership31.6 firearms per 100 residents (https://www.deseretnews.com/top/2519/0/15-nations-with-the-highest-gun-ownership.htmlRestrictive Gun Control Laws Apply to get gun license and gun from local policeextensive investigation will be made by the policeMin Age: 18 years oldMust clearly state for possession to own a firearm and provide necessary documentations for itMay be given a license to own up to six hunting rifles, ten pistols or a combination of eight rifles and pistolsMust be stored in a safe area (locked safe/vault); can’t store in your house/apartmentIt is illegal for a civilian in Sweden to carry a firearm, unless for a specific, legal purpose such as hunting or attending shooting rangesSocial responsibility laws are similar to those of the USa civilian can’t obtain guns if: Convicted of a felonyCommitted domestic abuse Under a restraining order Driving under the influenceGun Violence RatesSweden’s population is nearly 10 million which means about 19 people die due to gun-related homicideNearly 120 suicides annually by firearmNearly 6 accidental deaths by firearmfirearm-related violence is increasing in Sweden, causing serious consequences for the countrygang-related violence in which firearms have a central role is newItaly:http://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/italyGun Registration: -In Italy, the law requires that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register -Licensed firearm dealers are required to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulations authorityTotal Number of Gun deaths from 2000-2012 has increased over the years from 1,026 to 781 Gun RegulationsFirearms are regulated by the European Commission the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law- civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearm disguised as other objects, armour-piercings, Incendiary, and expanding ammunition Distribution and Registration -In Italy, only licensed guns owners may lawfully acquired, posses or transfer a firearm or ammunition -Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Italy are required to establish agreement and genuine agreement reason to possess a firearm, for example self-defence, hunting, sport, work or performance of duties as well as collection -The minimum age: 18 years old -An applicant must pass background check which considers criminal and mental health – possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm – state agencies are required to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunitions under their controlHigh gun violenceYemen: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/02/gun-control-yemen-style/273058/Second highest gun ownership rate in the world1 weapon per every 2 citizensMilitarization leads to easy gun accessAdvanced gun laws exist, but there is little to no implementationGun culture”In Yemen, no matter if you’re rich or poor, you must have guns…I have maybe 14 high powered weapons, and 3 handguns (at home)”- a sheikhCelebratory gunfire (ex. Weddings, Arab Spring) results in hundreds of deaths annuallySignificant gun violence4,000 gun related deaths annually (higher per capita rate than U.S.)Mostly political violenceAttempt at gun control before onset of Arab Spring was successfulPost Arab Spring government breakdown and civilian vigilance reinvigorated the gun problem”Every side knows that if you’re going to bring your gun, somebody else has a bigger gun”ConclusionHigh gun violence is a result of fraught political situation and weak governmentAlthough gun control laws exist, their lack of implementation allows for gun violenceGun control doesn’t matter if it’s not enforced4. Analysis Note correlation vs causationJust because a country has certain gun laws and gun deaths, it does not mean that one caused the otherIn general, countries with high gun ownership and low gun deaths are in vastly different situations than the USSwitzerlandExample often cited by proponents of fewer gun restrictionsAppears to have high gun ownership and low violenceHowever, guns are restricted and gun culture is different (military service)Finland, Sweden, Norway guns are used for hunting/sport, the gun culture is differentCountries like YemenGuns are important for self-defense and associated with masculinity,Gun deaths are highPolitical InstabilityEven more mass shooting that USOverall, no general causation trend can be attributed between violence/gun law/gun ownership levels. Cannot say countries with high gun ownership are safer/less safe because they vary dramatically in gun deathsSize and political environment varies greatly between US and other countries, so other factors are contributing to the numbersThere is a difference between gun deaths and gun homicidesGun deaths include accidents and suicideLarge amount of US suicides skews data compared to other countriesImportant to realize people cherry pick countries to back their arguments, when there are countries that evidence both sides

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