Before introducing an overview of
the impact of energy storage system in microgrid reported in the literature, it
is profitable to present what an energy storage, microgrid, distributed
generator is. M. Ali in 1 summarized the various DG definitions which were
presented in technical literature. These definitions mainly focus on two
aspects: the voltage level/location to which DG’s are connected and the maximum
power that can be delivered by DG’s. There is no steady description of Distributed
Generation (DG), but generally, they are little-scale generation element
situated near or at loads 2. Distributed generation can be described as a
slight scale generation element based on 
burning such as reciprocating engines and turbines, or non- burning such
as fuel cells, photovoltaic, wind turbines, etc. These are situated near the
end clients and are characterized as renewable or co-generation sources 3. Distributed
generation is also defined as the electricity generation by facilities that can
be connected to the power system at nearly any point. This requires the DG
capacity to be significantly smaller than central generation 4. Definitions
of microgrids are widely discussed in technical literature 5, 6 & 7. The
U.S department of energy defined microgrid as a collection of loads and
distributed energy resources (DER’s) that are interconnected together under
predefined standards to form a single controllable structure that can be
operated while connected to main grid or isolated from it 5. Authors in 6 introduce a microgrid as a collecting of DER’s that can
be supply the energy consistently and adequately to the large load. In
additional to, the microgrid must have autonomous control, and isolated mode
occurs with least interruption. Another definition introduced in 7 classifies
the microgrid as a local grid that includes distributed generation, power
electronics converter, ESS’s and telecommunication. Telecommunication is
important for the microgrid to operate in isolated mode or grid mode. Authors
in 8 extend the definition of microgrid to include the control &
protective devices. While the above discussion shows that microgrid consist of
DER’s, ESS’s, dispatchable load, control, protection devices and
telecommunication working together to generate heat and power for local area at
isolated mode or parallel to the main grid 5-8.RESs and ESS are used widely
in the world due to decrease the pollution which produce by the traditional
plants and reduce purchasing energy costs 26.  ESS’s help the renewable distributed
generation to integrate in the microgrid with high penetration level 9. So,
ESS’s are important in the operation of microgrid. ESS’s provide many benefits
for microgrid. ESS’s can be utilized to store power during off peak time and
recharging during peak time. Knowing that, the price of electricity (KWh) in
the off peak is less than the price of electricity in peak time. This price
difference is beneficial for ESS proprietor 10-11.Other benefits include
reliability and power quality development 10. RES’s affected by the environmental factors. Thus, ESS’s are
utilized to store extra power to preserve the frequency and voltage system and
utilized to supply power to load at storage state 12. Due to the important role
of ESS, their location and sizing must be selected very carefully for
confirming the correct operation of the microgrid. Main purpose of this review
is to make survey about the impact of location and size of energy storage on
the microgrid.

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