By: Harman Singh Connecting to key concepts My question, how we can deal with waste effectively? relates to the key concepts in this course such as biology, chemistry, because waste and the disposing of waste affects these key concepts learned in ecology. Ecology is the study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors. An ecosystem is composed of all the factors (both abiotic and biotic) and interactions in an environment. Human activities such as waste management or improper waste disposal affect both terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems. This concept connects to my question because the most common waste disposal methods and the waste or garbage improperly disposed pollute the environment affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems alike. For example, the ocean garbage patches and the presence of garbage in the oceans around the world disrupts the various ecosystems and endangers animal life by entangling, strangling, and suffocating sea creatures. Dumps are common in developing nations where they most likely allow contaminants in the soil and pollute nearby water and air this affects the way a terrestrial ecosystem functions. Landfills however are designed to reduce ecosystem contamination while containing solid waste. Sanitary landfills are the most common place for municipal waste disposal. Although sanitary landfills protect the environment from many things, these sites aren’t appropriate for the disposal of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste is a special category for waste material that is very harmful to human health and various ecosystems. Hazardous substances cause harm to organisms and to the environment as well. They require special methods to reduce or eliminate their harm to the environment. Incineration or burning is also another used method of waste disposal found and used around the world. Incinerators generate energy through a new technology called waste-to-energy system. This is a positive outcome from incineration, burning trash still isn’t a perfect solution They are expensive to build and contribute to environmental problems such as air pollution which has negative effects on an ecosystem. Liquid waste or wastewater if improperly disposed can have profound impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Agricultural activities are one common source of wastewater. The wastewater from pesticides. Run-off from ranches and animals can contaminate surface and ground water with nutrients, organic material, and bacteria. Many industrial liquid wastes are hazardous to human and ecosystem health. Improper disposal of both solid and liquid wastes affects human health, affects and kills animal in terrestrial ecosystems, and can kill fish or other aquatic life in aquatic ecosystems. The Earth has four spheres. The earth can be divided into four spheres lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Waste management affects all sphere. The human interactions in waste management negatively affect the earths sphere. Dumps allow contaminants into the soil (lithosphere) and pollute nearby water and air negatively affecting the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Incinerators contribute to air pollution, incinerating toxic materials can release pollutants into the atmosphere affecting the atmosphere and possibly the biosphere negatively lowering air quality and damaging the health of animals around the area. Hazardous substances can cause harm to organisms and the environment. The hazardous substances from human activity require special methods to reduce or eliminate their potential for harm. Special storage is needed for these substances. The research and development, manufacturing and importing, storage, transportation, disposal, and release into the environment and exposure to humans and the ecosystem. This results in possible impact to lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere. Limits on population include carrying capacity which means ecosystems have a limited amount of resources such as food, water, and shelter. All forms of waste management take space needed to store waste and will affect the sustainability (urbanization). As waste management centers take great amounts of space to function. Considering the landfill sites are getting much larger and finding space to replace lost landfill space in high population density areas where land is difficult to find. Especially since the public does not want the waste management sites near them.