Choose several words produced within the Cruttendendataset and record how they change as the speakers age. Analyse – qualitatively and in detail – the phonetics of the example utterances. Discuss what you’ve found in terms of the development of phonology. What sounds do the girls have trouble with? How are words altered in the girls’ pronunciation? How does this change over time? How does this relate to what you’ve read about the acquisition of phonology?1 Introduction Phonology is defined by Tessier (2016: 1) as ‘a characterization of all the mental representations and unconscious knowledge that speakers have about abstract representations and unconscious knowledge that speakers have about abstract speech sounds’. As this knowledge is being acquired and developed during childhood, children make many phonetic errors.This report aims to investigate the phonological development of two children, aged 1;5-17 until they are 2;11-17. Threedifferent words are examined, articulated by both children and the analysis of this will be carried out by looking at the errors and considering why they were made, and relate these to relevant literature. Section 2 will look at the background of phonology as a topic, providing an outline for the main concepts that I will refer to. Section 3 will consist of the methodology, which explains how I carried out my research and each stage that I followed. Section 4 will be made up of my results and analysis, and section 5 will be my conclusion, where I provide a brief overview of the main findings of my report.2 Background My report will use the symbols of the international phonetic alphabet (IPA) as this is typically used in phonology to represent speech sounds. As Stoel-Gammon (2011) has explained, children require speech motor skills in order to pronounce words accurately. This consequently means there is a high demand for children to ‘figure out how to control their articulation and phonation to yield sound sequences that match the input they receive'(Stoel-Gammon, 2011: 71). This means it is important to consider the skills that children have to possess in order to be phonologically accurate. An understanding of phonological processes is required to be able to interpret the data. Hoff’s chapter in Language Development (2001) and Richtsmeier’s article Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics (2010), which also discusses the work of other academics, help to refer to the majority ofthe processes which I will draw upon in this report. For the purposes of this report, the processes which I initially list are relevant to the children’s speech which I have looked at.Whole-word processes discussed by Hoff (2001): • Final consonant deletion is the omission of the final consonant in the word • Reduplication is when two identical syllables are produced, based on one of the syllables in the word• Consonant harmony is when one of two different consonants in the word acquires features of another consonant in the same word Phonological processes discussed by Velten (1943):• Word-initial voicing is when word-initial voiceless stops are produced as voiced • Word-final devoicing is when voiced consonants are devoiced and this usually occurs at the end of a monosyllabic wordAnother phonological process is discussed by (Brophy, Gibson and Tucker, 2013):• Backing is when sounds that should be produced at the front of the mouth are substituted for sounds produced at the back of the mouth. There are many other common phonological processes seen in children’s speech. Hoff (2001) has also defined these whole-word processes: • Weak syllable deletion is when an unstressed syllable is omitted in a target word • Consonant cluster reduction is when one of the consonants, part of a cluster in the target word, is omitted These processes are other segment substitution processes (Hoff, 2001):• Velar fronting is when a velar is replaced by an alveolar or dental • Stopping is when a fricative is replaced by a stop• Gliding is when a liquid is replaced by a glide Children typically use whole-word processes until they are approximately three years old (Hoff, 2001: 127). Substitution processes can persist in the speech of children until they are nine years of age (Richtsmeier, 2010: 11). This is important to consider when looking at the speech of children, as the stages of phonological development extend into their time at school.3 Methodology I used the CLAN programme and the Cruttenden dataset in the CHILDES transcript database to carry out this research. I looked at the datasets of the children Jane and Lucy, tocompare and contrast any phonological differences.I had to use a specific program command to be able to find my data and narrow down my search options. This command was:Kwal +s’word’ +t%xpho filename.chaThe appropriate word was inserted after ‘s’ and then the filename was inserted at the end in order to search in each individual file. This command shows the orthographic and phonetic transcription for the word, in the phonological tier. I looked at particular words used by both children across all the ages that the transcripts were available for. The words that I chose to analyse were due to the changing phonology as the same word was pronounced in several different ways. I transcribed the words myself to show how they are transcribed in Standard English, and used this as my point of comparison. My results are presented in tables which clearly presents the data, separated for each child and the age at which the utterance was spoken.My findings are discussed in relation to relevant literature where I could find links between the children I looked and what I have read about phonology acquisition.However, the limitations of the methodology also have to be considered. The main limitation is the omission of caregiver input. Although this report is focused on the analysis of the children’s phonology, caregivers potentially have a strong influence on the vocabulary of their children by prompting and encouraging their speech, but this cannot be accounted for in the Cruttenden dataset. The exact age of the children in each transcript is also not stated, as it is recorded over a varied timeframe so the age in which the child’s pronunciation changes cannot be pinpointed. Just as the presence of a caregiver in the Cruttenden dataset is not made clear, the setting where the conversation is taking place is not made explicit. The interaction of a child would be different if they were in their home setting, compared to that of a relative or particularly if they were in an unfamiliar environment as it may lead them to discuss unfamiliar items, or they may be less talkative if they don’t feel as comfortable. In addition, another limitation of my methodology is the scope that I chose to focus on, as clearly a more systematic analysis would be to phonologically investigate several words, but the time and word limitations does not allow this. The analysis that I will provide is qualitative in nature.4 Results and analysis Pronunciation of ‘milk’ m?lk Name of child: LucyName of child: Jane Phonetic transcription Data Line Age Phonetic transcription Data Line Age m?k?731;5. 17mu 2021;5. 17m?k1001;8. 19n?1361;6. 18m?k5291;11. 19m?661;7. 19n??6711;11. 19m?1201;10. 19m??k8421;11. 19mi?992;0. 17mi?k2012;0. 18m??k2032;0 17m??k1592;9. 18m??k1652;4. 18 m??k4372;6. 18Final consonant deletion can be seen in Lucy’s utterance ‘n??’ and Jane’s first utterance ‘mu’, as well as her 4 preceding utterances, as the voiceless velar stop k is omitted. This is typical of child speech, as it has been long observed that velars are one of the last consonants to be acquired (Jakobson, 1968: 47). As both children initially use the voiced bilabial nasal m, it is therefore interesting that they should choose to replace this with the voiced alveolar nasal n, as Lucy does this at 1;11-19 and Jane at 1;6-18. Their previous, repeated use of the word initial consonant shows that they are able to use the sound accurately. Their later phonological error can be accounted for, as Leonard, Newhood and Mesalam (1980: 28)explain phonological variation by how children first learn the words themselves rather than the sounds. The primary importance of learning the lexicon may make the emphasis on articulation secondary, so they aren’t remembered as accurately. As both children can articulate something to describe ‘milk’, this shows they are consistently able to link a label to the object, so they must have learnt its meaning, but the differences in pronunciation suggest that they are yet to grasp the articulations that correspond.In all the utterances, the alveolar lateral approximant l is not present. The most explicit example of this can be seen when the sound is omitted completely, in Lucy’s utterances of ‘m?k’ and ‘m?k’. Such sounds are more complex to produce, so are consequently acquired later in development. Another interesting feature of the pronunciation of ‘milk’ is in relation to the vowel i. Instead of using the near-close near-front unrounded vowel, it is instead produced further backwards in the mouth so is repeatedly realised as the near-close near-back rounded vowel ?. This could be because the children are not as able to position their tongue as far to the front in the mouth as possible which is required to articulate i, so the tendency to position their tongue further back in the mouth results in the realisation of the vowel ?.Pronunciation of ‘teddy’ t?diName of child: LucyName of child: Jane Phonetic transcription Data Line Age Phonetic transcription Data Line Age t??d?1351;5. 17de:di:1271;5. 17t?di2581;5. 17t?ð?di:871;6. 17d?di3101;11. 19t?di471;10. 19t?di3431;11. 19t?di1071;10. 19d?di3481;11. 19tedi1911;11. 19t?di9001;11. 19tedi4871;11 19t??di1092;4. 18t?di502;0. 17t?di1142;4. 18t?d?1242;1. 17t?di382;5. 18d?di362;3. 17tedi1202;5. 18d?di412;3. 17t?di62:7. 18d?di462;3. 17t?di192;7. 18d?di512;3. 17t?di7132;9. 18d?di742;3. 17t?di7352;9. 18t?di1962;4. 17 d?di2082;4. 17 t?di392;4. 18 d?di2822;4. 18 t?di4372;4. 18 t?di1242;8. 18 t?di1212;9. 18 t?di3692;9. 18 t?di3752;9. 18 t?di1132;10. 18 t?di773;4. 18 Both Jane and Lucy use word-initial voicing. They alternate between using the word initial consonant t, a voiceless alveolar plosive to d, a voiced alveolar plosive. For example, Lucy uses ‘t?di’ then ‘d?di’ and Jane says ‘t?d?’ then ‘d?di’. The fluctuation between voiced and voiceless consonants is a typical feature of child speech (Jakobson, 1968: 64). This is evident as both children accurately pronounce ‘t?di’ in several of their utterances, yet revert back to using the voiced alveolar plosive, instead of the voiceless counterpart. The majority ofchildren produce the correct voicing contrast by three and a half years of age (Richtsmeier, 2010: 5), so it is clear that Lucy and Jane are still at an age when such a contrast is yet to be mastered. The word-initial voicing of the voiced alveolar plosive d is also an example of consonant harmony as it has acquired the voiced feature of the later d sound in the word. This can be seen in Lucy’s utterances ‘d?di’ and ‘d?di’ and Jane’s ‘de:di:’ and ‘d?di’. Velleman and Vihman (2007: 44) suggest that consonant harmony is phonological process expected in young children because they haven’t encountered enough definitive concepts and their cognitive processing system is yet to reach its full capacity. Lucy’s utterance ‘d?di’ aged 1;11-19 has a distinctive realisation of the vowel, as well as being an example of word initial voicing. The open-mid front unrounded vowel ? is instead realised as the mid central unrounded vowel ?, known as schwa. This shows that her mouth positioning was not as open as necessary, and the height of her tongue was not high enough for the vowel to be correctly articulated. As schwa is articulated with the vocal tract in a neutral position, it may be that Lucy was using this simplification process to make it phonologically more manageable, as it allows for her to focus on linguistic features which haven’t previously been prevalent (Leonard, Newhoff and Mesalam, 1980: 25). Jane uses reduplication in ‘de:di:’ in her first recorded utterance of ‘teddy’, as she repeats the voiced alveolar sound d. Ferguson (1983: 240) refers to the ‘Moskowitz position’ (Moskowitz, 1973) where reduplication as being necessary to exercise ‘control over intra-word phonetic and structural complexity’ (Ferguson, 1983: 240). As the use of reduplication can be seen as preparatory to accurately produce forms, this can be seen in the correct pronunciation of ‘t?di’ at 1;10-19. Children initially use a front vowel in the early stages of their phonological development (Jakobson, 1968: 49). This pattern can be seen in two of the vowels in the data. Both children substitute the close front unrounded vowel i at the end of the word ‘teddy’ for the near close near front unrounded vowel ?. This is present in Lucy’s utterance ‘t??d?’ and Jane’s ‘t?d?’.The initial use of front vowels also explains the fluctuation between the use of the close mid front unrounded vowel e and the open-mid front unrounded vowel ? in Jane’s utterances. For example, she says ‘t?di’ aged 1;10-19 and at aged 1;11-19 ‘tedi’. As e is more likely to be firmly established in her phonemic inventory, she seems to revert back to this initial sound, as opposed to consistently using ?, which is likely to be more recently acquired so it is not as secure in her memory. Pronunciation of ‘duck’ d?kName of child: LucyName of child: Jane Phonetic transcription Data Line Age Phonetic transcription Data Line Age da1101;5. 17ga441;7. 19d?1631;5. 17k?k3011;11. 19da2701;5. 17 ka:k??161;7. 19 d?k?211;7. 19 Final consonant deletion can be seen in the first 3 of Lucy’s utterances ‘da’, ‘d?’ and ‘da’, and Jane’s utterance ‘ga’. The tendency to omit the final consonant, the voiceless velar plosive k could be due to how the children are paying less attention to phonetic detail as they are still in the early stagesof phonological development. As they develop to have more language experience, children are then more likely to focus upon phonetic detail (Velleman and Vihman, 2007: 35). This is evident in Lucy’s use of the voiceless velar plosive aged 1;7-19 ‘d?k?’ and Jane aged 1;11-19 ‘k?k’.Lucy’s almost complete accuracy using the word initial voiced alveolar plosive d can be explained by Leonard, Newhoodand Mesalam’s (1980: 21) findings, that alveolar stops made up a child’s early word-initial consonants. As this consonant seems to be acquired early in children’s speech, this explains why Lucy uses d correctly in 4 out of 5 of her utterances. Lucy’s utterance produced aged 1;7-19 ‘ka:k??’ can be explained as an attempt to produce the onomatopoeic sound ‘quack’ which is phonetically transcribed as ‘kwak’. This is shown in the ‘%exp’ tier of CLAN, which states ‘indicating noise of duck’. Jane’s use of the voiced velar plosive g is an example of backing, as the alveolar plosive d is substituted by a sound produced further back in the mouth. This could also be explained by children’s tendency to produce new words using consonants that they are already able to articulate (Leonard, Newhood and Mesalam, 1980: 22). As plosive sounds are one of the earliest consonants to be produced (Tessier, 2016: 152) Jane seems to be relying on the sounds that she already knows in her initial attempt to produce a newer word, until she is accurately able to add a newer consonant to her repertoire. Jane’s utterance ‘ga’ is an example of backing, as the word initial consonant d, a voiced alveolar plosive, produced at the front of the mouth, is substituted by g, a voiced velar plosive, produced at the back of the mouth. This could also bedue to the same reason that plosive sounds are one of the earliest consonant sounds to be produced (Tessier, 2016: 52). 5 Conclusion To conclude, the majority of the phonological patterns which I have identified correspond to the literature that I have looked at. Jane and Lucy generally seem to make the same phonological errors at similar ages. The main pattern of their errors occurred word initially, with the frequent use of word-initial voicing and word finally, where they often showed final consonant deletion. Although there are a few examples which appear to be inconsistent in both datasets, this is likely to be due to the individual differences in phonological development which every child experiences. There are general milestones which every child experiences, but no one child is exactly the same. My analysis has shown that Jane and Lucy’s use of phonemes become more stable and accurate with age when they have increased language experience and will undoubtedly continue to flourish as they master larger vocabularies.