This principal evidence is ably supplemented by the pictorial depictions made by hunting-gathering communities of later periods. These have survived on the walls, ceilings etc. of the cave shelters that were seemingly used by these communities. No other records pertaining to them have survived and we have to bank almost solely on the surviving assemblages of stone implements and tools for reconstructing the living patterns of hunting-gathering communities.
The bulk of the evidence relates to stone tools and implements which were crafted by the contemporary people for their use. These tools were made of selectively chosen stone material. They were also crafted with a definite purpose and with an economy of effort and material both.
The assemblages of these stone tools survive at specific locations which conform to one or more requirements of their manufacture.
Besides the availability of suitable material, the other considerations were perhaps an abundant supply of water and food. The archaeologists unearth this material evidence and relate it with the cultural context of its assemblage so that the seemingly mute stone tools assume a vibrant character.
This makes it possible to reconstruct the main contours of contemporary societies, that is the life-styles of the hunting-gathering communities. In the process we are further helped by the pictorial depictions made by the hunting-gathering people as they give us an idea about the economy and society of the pre-historic people. These pictures which apparently are visual expressions of the occurrences in the life of contemporary communities, on a detailed scrutiny communicate for more intense tidings.
Together they the material evidence of stone tools and implements and the rock art help us recreate the ambience of hunting gathering communities in much sharper focus than ever before. The emergence of the Stone Age is generally attributed to the Pleistocene period that began at about 1.8 million years ago.