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The word group means a
number of things or person relation to one another. In other words, two or more
freely interacting people, mutually accountable for achieving common goals. In
most of the business or in other organization there are more than one person to
make the decision of the company. This also can be also known as a group.


One of the most common
characteristic of group is common goal or interest. This means that all the
member should have the common goal and interest. A single person can’t make a
group there should be more than one person to form a group, also when group and
group come together it become an organization also in this case we could see
some of them are having a common interest and goals. The next one is collection
of two or more people. Group are the collection of two or more people. Group
are composed of two or more persons in a social interaction. After this there
will be interaction and interdependent, this means in any group there is
interaction and interdependence among the group numbers either physically or virtually
to accomplish the group goal. For example, co-workers may work side by side on
related tasks in a work unit. Collective identity is the next characteristics
of group. Group have collective identity, not the sum of individual members.
Or, it is the awareness of each other that most clearly differentiates a group
form an aggregation of individuals. Groups are composed of people who recognize
each other as a member of their group and can distinguish these individuals
form non-member. The last one is a stable structure. Group have a defined
structure which gives relationship that keeps group members together the stable
functioning as a unit. It clarifies roles, authority and responsibility of each
group members which is important to accomplish group goal.


functions of the formal group are splatted into two parts there are
organizational and individual function. First I will explain the organizational
function. First one is, accomplish
complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.
And the next one is generate new or creative ideas and solutions. In an organization they have many
problem and they need a solution or idea that may help them, this is why this
is a function of formal group. The next one is Coordinate
interdepartmental efforts. After that. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for
complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. There is also
Implement complex decisions and Socialize and train newcomers. Then there will be individual
functions they are Satisfy the
individual’s need for affiliation. Develop, enhance, and confirm the
individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. Give individuals an opportunity
to test and share their perceptions of social reality. Reduce the individual’s
anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness. Provide a
problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.


            There are four different stages of group, first one is
forming. The forming stage represents a time where the group is just starting
to come together and is characterized with anxiety and uncertainty. Members are
cautious with their behavior, which is driven by the desire to be accepted by
all members of the group. Conflict, controversy and personal opinions are
avoided even though members are beginning to form impressions of each other and
gain an understanding of what the group will do together. The next one is storming.
The storming stage is where conflict and competition are at its greatest. This
is because now that group members have an understanding of the task and a
general feel for who they are as a group and who group members are, they feel
confident and begin to address some of the more important issues surrounding
the group. Once a group receives the clarity that it so desperately needs, it
can move on to the third stage of group development, known as the norming stage. The norming stage
is the time where the group becomes a cohesive unit. And the last one is
performing it means to see that they can do the job properly together.



            The word learning mean, an act in which something is
learned or accumulated knowledge. In business it means that any relative
permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. It could be
involving change in the company or department. Also it could be relatively
permanent. Even acquired through experience. This is how to leaning is known in
the business.






           learning always involves some kind
of experience. These experiences may be derived from inside the body or they
may be sensory, arising outside. Procedural learning or ‘knowing how’, concerns
your ability to carry out particular skilled actions such as riding a horse.
Declarative learning or `knowing that’, concerns your store of factual
knowledge such as an understanding of the history of our use of the horse.

          The behavioral changes that take place
due to learning are relatively permanent. Behavior can be changed temporarily
by many other factors and in ways which we would not like to call learning.
These other factors include growing up or maturation (in children), aging (in
adults), drugs, alcohol and fatigue

           Learning cannot be observed
directly. We can only observe a person’s behavior and draw the inference from
it that learning has taken place. A distinction has to be made between learning
and performance. Performance is evaluated by some quantitative and some
qualitative measures of output.



           There are some theories of learning,
first one is Classical Conditioning. A
type of conditioning in which an individual respond to some stimulus that would
not ordinarily produce such a response. There are some key concepts, there are Unconditioned stimulus, Unconditioned
response, Conditioned stimulus, Conditioned response. Next one is Operant
Conditioning. A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior
leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Some of the key concepts there are Reflexive (unlearned) behavior, Conditioned
(learned) behavior, Reinforcement. The next one is Social-Learning Theory. People can learn through observation and direct
experience. Some key concepts they are Attentional
processes, Retention processes, Motor reproduction processes, Reinforcement
processes. The last one is Shaping Behavior. Systematically reinforcing
each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
The key concepts are Reinforcement is
required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The
timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.



            Attitudes is evaluative statements
or judgments concerning objects, people, or event. There are three components
of an attitude they are affective, cognitive, behavioral. Attitude is a very
important part of all our life. Even in our work life it is one of the most
important part. Without any attitudes you can’t have good impression on people.


            If I was in the position of him, I
will try to change it in to a secondary business because this may help me to
make it different and I will be able to carry on my own business.





are some characteristics of leadership. There are:

Empathy: Creating
a legitimate rapport with your staff makes it less likely that personal issues
and resentment can creep in and derail the group. When your team knows that you
are empathetic to their concerns, they will be more likely to work with you and
share in your vision, rather than foster negative feelings.

Consistency: Being
a consistent leader will gain you respect and credibility, which is essential
to getting buy-in from the group. By setting an example of fairness and
credibility, the team will want to act the same way.

Honesty: Another
characteristic of leadership that lends itself to credibility. Those who are
honest, especially about concerns, make it far more likely that obstacles will
be addressed rather than avoided. Honesty also allows for better assessment and

Direction: Having
the vision to break out of the norm and aim for great things –then the
wherewithal to set the steps necessary to get there– is an essential
characteristic of good leadership. By seeing what can be and managing the goals
on how to get there, a good leader can create impressive change.

Communication: Effective
communication helps keep the team working on the right projects with the right
attitude. If you communicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice,
your staff will be more likely to react and meet your goals.

Flexibility: Not
every problem demands the same solution. By being flexible to new ideas and
open-minded enough to consider them, you increase the likelihood that you will
find the best possible answer. You will set a good example for your team and
reward good ideas.

Conviction: A
strong vision and the willingness to see it through is one of the most
important characterizes of leadership. The leader who believes in the mission
and works toward it will be an inspiration and a resource to their followers.


            The stability of inter individual
differences in personality traits tends to increase with age until it plateaus
in middle adulthood and finally decreases in old age. Rank-order continuity
also tends to decrease as the time intervals between occasions of personality
assessment increase, irrespective of age.
 These patterns show that personality development is a lifelong process.
Yet the sources of these patterns are unknown.


There are 3 theories of motivation.

Abraham Maslow is among the most prominent psychologists of the
twentieth century. His hierarchy of needs is an image familiar to most business
students and managers. The most basic of Maslow’s needs are physiological needs. Physiological needs refer to the
need for food, water, and other biological needs. These needs are basic because
when they are lacking, the search for them may overpower all other urges.
Imagine being very hungry. At that point, all your behavior may be directed at
finding food. Once you eat, though, the search for food ceases and the promise
of food no longer serves as a motivator. Once physiological needs are
satisfied, people tend to become concerned about safety
needs. Are they free from the threat of danger, pain, or an uncertain
future? On the next level up, social needs refer
to the need to bond with other human beings, be loved, and form lasting
attachments with others. In fact, attachments, or lack of them, are associated
with our health and well-being. Baumeister. The need to
belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human
motivation. Psychological Bulletin, the satisfaction of social needs makes esteem needs more salient. Esteem need refers to
the desire to be respected by one’s peers, feel important, and be appreciated.
Finally, at the highest level of the hierarchy, the need for self-actualization refers to “becoming all you are
capable of becoming.” This need manifests itself by the desire to acquire new
skills, take on new challenges, and behave in a way that will lead to the
attainment of one’s life goals.

                The next one is the Herzberg or
two factor theory. Herzberg had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of
motivation. He
argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that
would directly motivate employees to work harder. However, there were also
factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in
themselves actually motivate employees to work harder.

            Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by
adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and
content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers
could use to achieve this are:

Job enlargement –
workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily
more challenging) which should make the work more interesting.
Job enrichment –
involves workers being given a wider range of more complex and challenging
tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater
sense of achievement.
Empowerment means
delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas
of their working life.

Then there is the last one which is the X
and Y theory. McGregor developed two theories of
human behavior at work: Theory and X and Theory Y. He did not imply that
workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two
extremes – with a whole spectrum of possible behaviors in between.

Theory X
workers could be described as follows:

– Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where

– Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility
and prefer to be led

– Individuals who desire security

The management implications for Theory X workers were
that, to achieve organizational objectives, a business would need to impose a
management system of coercion, control and punishment.

Theory Y
workers were characterized by McGregor as:

– Consider effort at work as just like rest or play

– Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Depending on
the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or

– Individuals who seek responsibility






Mahatma Gandhi (October 2, 1869 to January 30,
1948) was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against
British rule and in South Africa who advocated for the civil rights of Indians.
Born in Porbandar, India, Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against
British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by
a fanatic in 1948.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid
that he slept with the lights on even as a teenager. In the ensuing years, the
teenager rebelled by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household

            Although Gandhi was interested in
becoming a doctor, his father had hoped he would also become a government
minister, so his family steered him to enter the legal profession. In 1888,
18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The young Indian
struggled with the transition to Western culture. Upon returning to India in
1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just weeks earlier. He struggled
to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom case, a nervous Gandhi
blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He immediately fled the
courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees

Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karamchand Gandhi, served as a chief
minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putlibai,
was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly.

At the age of 13, Mahatma Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a
merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage. In 1885, he endured the passing
of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby. In 1888,
Gandhi’s wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was
born in India 1893; Kasturba would give birth to two more sons while living in
South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Gandhi grew
up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous
ancient Indian religion that espoused non-violence, fasting, meditation and

During Gandhi’s first stay in London, from 1888
to 1891, he became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive
committee of the London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of
sacred texts to learn more about world religions.

leadership of Mahatma Gandhi has a foundation in self-development. To lead by
example, one must first become the type of person that you would like your
followers to be. This is achieved through self-sacrifice, understanding, and


































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