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Contents
Contents. 1
A1. 3
i. Introduction of Group. 3
ii. Characteristics of group behavior identified in
the case study. 3
iii. Function of formal groups. 4
iv. Stages of group development with diagram.. 4
A2. 6
i. Definition of Learning. 6
ii. How the diverse nature of the group affected the committee’s actions?. 6
iii. Draw and explain the learning process. 7
iv. Theories of learning with examples. 8
Behaviorism.. 8
Cognitive. 8
Constructivism.. 8
Social-cognitive theory. 8
A3. 10
i. What are attitudes. 10
ii. If I were in Jose’s situation, what would I do and what would I do
now. 10
iii. Characteristics of good leadership and suggestions to Jose on how to
become a good leader 10
iv. Nature vs nurture in personality. 11
v. Theories of motivation. 11
A4. 13
Introduction of Leader 13
Leaders Profile. 13
References. 15
 

 

This assignment is prepared for
module Organizational Behaviour, which is under taken in Certificate 4 in
Business Administration.

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A1

i. Introduction of Group

Groups are two or more interacting and
interdependent individuals who come together to succeed particular goals. A
group behavior can be stated as a course of action a group takes as a family.
Group helps individual to feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and be more
contrary to threats. Another key advantage of group work in the office is that when
a group attacks a project or task, it can be done more quickly and with greater
efficiency than if just one person attempted to muddle through it. (kishore, 2013)

ii.
Characteristics of group behavior identified in the case study

There are several characteristics of group
behavior identified in the case study. Firstly, the members are acknowledged
clearly and a leader has been appointed. This is one of the main
characteristics of group. All of the members are expected to work together on
the task force to achieve selective and specific goal. As groups are form to
work together to achieve specific goal. Secondly, Jose, the leader scheduled
the meeting and made sure that all of the members were aware of when the
meeting will commence. Additionally, the team is encouraged to participate more
as seen by Jose opening the floor for comments and suggestions and what cements
the fact that this is group behavior is how the members actually contribute to
the meeting after Jose asks for their opinion. Fourthly, the members are seen
discussing ‘possible new design elements’. While these discussions always
seemed to be coming back to a topic that Jose had already shut down, all the
members of the team participated in the discussion and thus, it can be seen as
group behavior.

 

iii. Function of formal groups

Formal groups are often defined as groups created by the
organization, for the purpose of accomplishing a specific task. They are formed
deliberately and include a large amount of people who has a strictly
professional relationship towards each other within the group. They are
structured systematically, in hierarchical form. Behaviour of the members of
the formal group is according to rules and regulations set by the management.
In addition, a systematic communication pattern is followed while communication
in the formal organisation. Generally, the employees of the organization are
divided into groups with a task assigned to each group. Hence, the task of the
group is accomplished along with the fulfillment of organizational goals.
Some examples of formal groups are Command Groups that consist of managers and
their subordinates and Committees, which are a group of people appointed by an organization
to resolve matters. Task groups are also an example of formal groups. These
groups are formed to carry out particular tasks. (rasel, 2013)

iv. Stages of group
development with diagram

 

According to Bruce Tuchman the first stage of group development is
known as the forming stage. Which represents the time when the group is just starting
to come together. The members are often cautious with their behavior as the
members are not yet familiar with each other. Second stage, storming stage,
where conflict and competition are at its greatest. Reasons is being that the
members are now more familiar with each other. The third stage, norming stage,
where the group becomes a cohesive unit. Sherri Hartzell, instructor at
Study.com writes regarding the norming stage: “morale is high as group members
actively acknowledge the talents, skills and experience that each member brings
to the group. Members are flexible, interdependent and trust each other.” In
the fourth stage, performing, productivity is highest as group objectives and a
clear leadership has been established in previous stages and thus, the group
can move onto completely focusing on the mission of the group. In the final
stage, adjourning, the group may disband or they might discard their goals. It
is understood that all groups will eventually come to this stage. 

 

A2

i. Definition of Learning

The business dictionary defines learning as “measurable and
relatively permanent change in behavior through experience, instruction, or
study.” Learning can be done through observation where one learns not through
their own experience but by watching how someone else behaves and the
consequences of their behavior. Another type of learning is cognitive learning.
Here, one learns through active and constructive thought process, such as
practice or by using our own memory. (Skinner, N.D.)

 

ii. How the diverse nature of
the group affected the committee’s actions?

Typically, in situations where diversity is apparent in a group,
groups perform better. Reasons for this being that a number of different people
mean a wide array of opinions and ideas and it allows the group to tackle
problems from different angles. However, in the circumstances of the case
study, we see that the group members were discussing according to the agenda of
the meeting. These discussion is one of the group behavior and way to come up
with ideas. One particular idea is brought up which was quickly shut down by
the leader of the group. It is important to note that all the members of the
task force are all heads of divisions or holds considerable authority in their
original organization. Hence, it is not difficult to assume that the foremost
problem with the group is that there was a preordained head for the group.
Additionally, Jose, did not handle the situation well at all. He involved them
in the discussion process, yes, but he should not have given into their demands
completely.

 

iii. Draw and explain the learning process.

Learning can be defined as the relatively permanent change in an
individual’s behaviour (knowledge, skill and attitude) that can occur at any
time or place as a result of consciously. There are many different learning
types and approaches to learning.

Everything starts with a plan. In this stage we have to plan what
do we want to achieve. By setting objectives it will be easy to concentrate on
what you want to learn.

The next step of learning of searching. In this stage we look for
best methods on how we can learn. We can either choose more than one option for
learning. There are many options such as books, website, multimedia etc.

Then the actual process happens in this stage. Here learner
actually learns what actually he planned. In this process learner elaborate,
self-monitor on what he wanted to know.

Finally, s/he reflects what he learned. Here learner compares what
he planned to learn and what actually learnt. If there is need for extra
acknowledging knowledge he or she again starts the process. (Daher, 2013)

 

 

iv. Theories of learning with
examples

The four most influential theories of learning are behaviorism,
cognitive psychology, constructivism and social learning theory.

Behaviorism

Behaviorism proposes that the learning consists of changes in
behavior acquired through associations between stimuli and response. Behaviorism
theorists believe that knowledge exists independently and outside of
people.  They view the learner as a blank
slate who must be provided the experience. 
Behaviorists believe that learning actually occurs when new behaviors or
changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and
responses.  Thus, association leads to a
change in behaviour. For example, if a dog is given a bone for every time it
barks, it associates the bone with barking and hence, it learns that if he
barks, he will get a bone.

Cognitive

Cognitive psychology focuses on the way of how people process
information. It looks at how we process information we receive and how the
treatment of this information leads to our responses. Lisa Roundy writes
that cognitive psychology is goal-oriented and problem-focused from the
beginning. She gives the example of entering treatment with a cognitive
psychologist. And she says that the first thing you will be asked to do is to
identify your problems and formulate specific goals for yourself.

Constructivism

Constructivism is based on the evidence that we all construct our
own perspective of the world, based on own self experiences and internal
knowledge.  Learning is based on how the
individual interprets and creates the meaning of his or her experiences.  Knowledge is constructed by the learner and since
everyone has a different set of experiences and perceptions, learning is unique
and different for each person.

Social-cognitive theory

The social-cognitive theory is a theoretical perspective in which
learning by observing others is the focus of study. Social-cognitive theory is
grounded by several basic assumptions.

One is that people can learn by observing others. Learners can
acquire new behaviors and knowledge by simply observing a model. A model is a
person who demonstrates behavior for someone else. In our Electric Slide
example, the observer watched the models perform the dance in order to learn
it.

Assumption two show learning is an internal process that may or may
not lead to a behavior. Learning may not occur immediately. The observer could
process the new behavior, but his/her learning may not be affected until a later
point or never at all. In our dance example, it may take our observer multiple
parties at which the Electric Slide is being danced until he joins in, or he
may never join in. For example, a teenager may learn slang by observing his
peers. (Boylen, 2009)

 

A3

i. What are attitudes

Attitudes are generally understood to be formed through a process
of individual subjective evaluation (involving a rational assessment of costs
and benefits), but also influenced by affective and emotional responses and
related beliefs. Attitudes are defined as being specific to an object or
behaviour while beliefs are more generic, relating to a wider worldview, and
tend to be more stable. (Cherry, 2017)

 

ii. If I were in Jose’s
situation, what would I do and what would I do now.

If I were in Jose’s situation, I would have enforced my authority
over the team more forcefully. While I would still allow for group discussions
to take place and for individual members to express their opinions clearly, I
would have made it clear that the final decision lies within my hands. I would
include motivational ideas for promoting brain storming. As then only I would
be able to generate more ideas about new designed pet coffins. Also I would not
have let the members overrule my authority as head of the team and I especially
would not have let such disrespect towards hierarchy take place.

 

iii. Characteristics of good leadership and
suggestions to Jose on how to become a good leader

There are several characteristics that a good leader must have. He must have the drive and self-confidence
it takes to lead a number of people and must not hesitate in decisions and he
must not show reluctance to take action. A leader is a person that others look
up to for guidance and reassurance. He must also must inspire and motivate
his team to achieve their goals and mission. The greatest leaders always leave
an impact on the people around them. He should solve problems and analyse
issues and take advantage of the opportunities in the marketplace. This
requires him to have excellent analytical skills as well as outstanding people
skills. He must aim to have high standard of morals and a high degree of integrity
and honesty. He must also communicate powerfully and prolifically. He
has to make time to check up on the progress of his employees through various methods
– one on one conversations, team meetings, email messages, phone or Skype calls
etc. He must also build relationships with the members of his team, his
customers, his employer, others in the industry, and with the people in his
community.

 

iv. Nature vs nurture in
personality

According to Saul McLeod, author and tutor at The University of
Manchester, nature vs. nurture debate within psychology is concerned with the
extent to which particular aspects of behavior are a product of either
inherited (i.e., genetic) or acquired (i.e., learned) characteristics. Nature
is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and
other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of
external factors after conception, e.g., the product of exposure, experience
and learning on an individual. (McLeod, 2015)

 

v. Theories of motivation

Motivation is one of the factors that lead to performance.
Motivation is known as the desire to accomplish a goal or a certain performance
level. When referred to someone as being motivated, it means that the person is
trying hard to accomplish a certain task. Motivation is clearly important if
someone is to perform well; however, it is not sufficient. Ability or having
the skills and knowledge required to perform the job, is also important and is
sometimes the key determinant of effectiveness. Finally, environmental factors
such as having the resources, information, and support one needs to perform
well are critical to determine motivation.

A number of motivational theories have been developed over time
that can help to get the most out from the workers.

a)     
Hierarchy
of Needs

Psychologist Abraham Maslow developed this theory. It places human
needs into five categories ranging from basic survival needs like food and
shelter to the need for self-actualization. According to Maslow, once one need
is satisfied, an individual seeks to achieve the next level. When applied to
work, the theory implies that the employer must understand the current need
level of each employee to know what will motivate them. A new hire who has been
unemployed for an extended time will likely be motivated by the need for basic
survival. On the other hand, a worker concerned with career advancement may be
looking to achieve self-actualization, so assigning higher-level tasks may be
in order.

b)     
Carrot
and Stick

This traditional motivational theory, attributed to philosopher
Jeremy Bentham, dates back to around 1800 during the Industrial Revolution. It
breaks down motivation into two basic components: incentives and fear. Some
workers are motivated by the desire to attain additional compensation, a
yearning to achieve status and power by “moving up the ladder,” or
the need for praise. But some workers act out of fear: the fear of losing a
job, being reprimanded by a supervisor or not being able to adequately perform
an assignment.

c)     
Motivation-Hygiene
Theory

Also known as the Two Factory theory, Frederick Herzberg developed
this in 1959. It postulates that different factors in the work environment
result in either satisfaction or dissatisfaction; Herzberg referred to these as
“hygiene” factors. Factors that lead to satisfaction include
achievement, recognition and advancement, while those causing dissatisfaction
include work conditions, salary and peer relationships. In general, the theory
puts forth that supervisors must be able to effectively manage factors leading
to satisfaction and dissatisfaction to successfully motivate employees.
Management must look for ways to provide job enrichment for workers. (Chand, N.D.)

 

A4.

Introduction of Leader

Leaders help themselves and others to do the right things. They set
direction, build an inspiring vision, and create something new. Leadership is
about mapping out where you need to go to “win” as a team or an
organization; and it is dynamic, exciting, and inspiring. (Sharma, N.D.)

Leaders Profile

Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson, born 18 July 1950, is an
English business magnate, investor and philanthropist. He is the CEO and
founder of Virgin Group, which controls more than 400 companies such as Virgin
Blue, Virgin Mobile, Virgin Atlantic, Virgin finances, Virgin brides, Virgin
cars, Virgin trains and many more. He was listed at number 85 in the ‘list of
100 greatest Britons’ in 2002, but at the same time in 2003 was enlisted as
number 86 in the ‘list of worst Britons’ by the BBC. He is a controversial
figure. Despite all this, he has become one of the most popular and successful
entrepreneurs and was knighted by the queen in 1999 for his entrepreneurship
skills. Nowadays the Virgin group is known as for the diversity of products and
services it provides, such as Virgin money, Virgin Hotel, Virgin Galactic,
Virgin airline, Virgin Broadband. The group employees over 50 000 people
throughout the world and had is well respected brand in the world. (Saul, 2014)

Transformational leadership is an approach to leadership that moves
followers to transcend self-interest for the good of the organization.
Transformational leadership consists of six behaviors: articulating a vision;
setting a positive example; communicating high performance expectations; showing
sensitivity to individual followers’ needs; encouraging a team attitude; and
providing intellectual stimulation. Richard Branson of the Virgin Group pays
attention to his followers’ individual concerns about the company, expresses
confidence in his employees’ abilities to perform at a very high level, and
puts forth a mission that is clear and engaging to members of the Virgin
community.

Not every great leader follows the same path; they tread their
unique path and make their personal mark on the people around them. However,
all leaders worth remembering do have these same qualities; they believe in
themselves, they believe in others, and they believe in their work or field
passionately. An even greater team supports a great leader, and Richard Branson
is an individual who prides himself on working with a team that share the same
core values he does. Recognizing the value of his employees and being genuinely
interested in them are two great qualities to have. Richard Branson, of course,
possesses both. That in itself should speak volumes. A leader needs to be able
to take risks and Richard Branson is an explorer and a groundbreaking
entrepreneur on so many levels a good example is a positive role model. Branson
is also motivating and energetic. This includes doing things that will inspire
others, encouraging them and inducing them achieve organizational goal for
example and always be eager to perform any given tasks. (Chris, 2015)

In conclusion, it is evident Richard Branson have proven through
time his effective leadership skills have allowed him to succeed and also pick
himself up after failures. It is known that a leader should not only depend on
technical skills but also be flexible and be adaptable to today’s dynamic
world, which is ever changing. Communicating high performance expectations;
showing sensitivity to individual followers’ needs; encouraging a team
attitude; and providing intellectual stimulation. Richard Branson has become
one of the most popular and successful entrepreneurs and was knighted by the
queen in 1999 for his entrepreneurship skills.  

 

References

Boylen, S. (2009, September 16). Theories of
Learning. Retrieved from slideshare.net:
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Chand, S. i. (N.D.). Motivation Theories: Top 8
Theories of Motivation – Explained! Retrieved from yourarticlelibrary:

Motivation Theories: Top 8 Theories of Motivation – Explained!


Cherry, K. (2017, October 31). Attitudes and
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Retrieved from www.josephchris.com:

Richard Branson Leadership Style Commandments


Daher, J. (2013, January 8). Teaching and
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kishore, v. (2013, September 9). organisational
behaviour- groups. Retrieved from www.slideshare:

McLeod, S. (2015). Nature vs. Nurture in
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https://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html
rasel. (2013, December 15). Bank of Info.
Retrieved from bankofinfo.com: https://bankofinfo.com/functions-of-formal-organization/
Saul, H. (2014, November 1). Richard Branson
profile: The billionaire entrepreneur behind the Virgin Group empire.
Retrieved from www.independent.co.uk :
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/richard-branson-profile-the-billionaire-entrepreneur-behind-the-virgin-group-empire-9832952.html
Sharma, D. M. (N.D.). Leadership Management:
Principles, Models and Theories . Retrieved from www.ripublication.com:
https://www.ripublication.com/gjmbs_spl/gjmbsv3n3spl_14.pdf
Skinner, B. (N.D.). Operant Conditioning.
Retrieved November 2017, 28, from www.instructionaldesign.org:
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/operant-conditioning.html
Smith, M. K. (2008). What is a group?
Retrieved 11 06, 2017, from infed.org: http://infed.org/mobi/what-is-a-group/
Tuckman, B. (N.D). Stages of Group Development.
Retrieved November 28, 2017, from businessjargons:

Stages of Group Development


 

            

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