A Piagetian process in
which learners create schema due to new information or experiences.
Social English skills that
children use every day to community at home and in the community; English
learners typically acquire these skills within 2 years after arriving in the
An activity in which
children replace words that have been deleted from a text.
Another word for
“thinking” that is often used in connection with strategies.
Academic English skills,
much more formal and challenging to learn than BICS, that are acquired 7 or
more years to learn.
Two adjacent consonants
that represent a sound not represented by either consonant alone.
Information from the words
or sentences surrounding an unfamiliar word that helps them clarify the
A variety of language,
usually representing different social classes or geographical regions.
A procedure for segmenting
sounds in a word that involves drawing a box to represent each sound.
to enhance children’s literacy development.
An idea that’s expressed
in an imaginative way, sometimes conveyed through a metaphor or simile.
assessments that administered with several important decisions (funding,
graduation, placement, etc.) weighing on the results.
Expressions that mean
something different from the literal meanings of the individual words.
The level of reading
material that a child can read independently with high comprehension and
accuracy of 95-100%.
instruction for struggling readers to address reading problems and accelerate
A reading instructional
approach in which the whole class reads (or small groups) and responds to a
piece of literature.
Conventions of writing,
including spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammar.
between phonemes and graphemes.
The first stage of the
writing process where writers gather and organize their ideas.
A method of estimating the
difficulty of a text.
The third stage of the writing
process where writers clarify meaning in the rough draft.
The support a teacher
provides to children as they read and write.
Children’s belief in their
capability to succeed and reach their goals; children with high self-efficacy
are more likely to be high achieving readers and writers.
The teacher reads a book
aloud a group of children follow along in the text.
Literacy devices and
display conventions that authors use to achieve particular effects in their
writing, such as point of view, metaphors, rhyme, and headings.
A procedure in which
teachers or students verbalize their thoughts while reading or writing to
describe their use of strategies.
A published book that
isn’t a text book (typically in a bookstore or library).
Groups of words that
An alphabetized chart
posted in the classroom listing words children are learning.
The distance between a
child’s actual development level and his/her potential learning level that
can be reached with assistance from the teacher.