Natural landscapes of India:

India is bestowed with a variety of landscapes such as mountains, hills, rivers, vast agricultural stretches, coastal areas, hot and cold deserts, humid belts, mangroves, grazing lands, alpine pastures, etc. This variety not only adds to the biological diversity of landscapes, it also provides a means of livelihood for the people of India.

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India’s landscape comprises the forests, grasslands and semi-arid ecosystems. These include ecosystems like the hills with their cold deserts and alpine pastures, the hot deserts of Rajasthan, the mangroves of the coastal region, and the wet tropical and wet temperate forests of Eastern India and East Himalayas. The presence of both the cold deserts in Ladakh and hot deserts in Rajasthan is unique to the country.

Man-made landscape or built environment:

These include human activities, like construction of buildings, flyovers, dams and reservoirs. Landscapes, like mountain farming systems and national parks, new townships, deforestation and mining are some examples of man-made landscapes.

Man has altered the environment for his own interest to meet the demands of growing population. He has indiscriminately cleared forests or converted arable land into new townships, built roads, bridges and set up industries.

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