Epstein (2009) divided types of
involvement activities into two groups. Some types of involvement could
influence students’ skills, achievement, and test scores and some others may
influence attitudes, attendance, and behavior. She explained that practices
should meet the needs of the students, families, and community because poorly
designed involvement activities could have a negative result.

Joyce Epstein, director of the
Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships at Johns Hopkins
University, is one of the leading experts in the field of parental involvement.
She and Sanders stated that “More will be accomplished if schools, families,
and communities work together to promote successful students.” (Epstein &
Sanders, 2000, p. 1).Epstein (1991), in her study, looked into student
achievement in 14 classrooms of elementary school teachers who used varying
techniques to involve parents in learning activities at home. The author found
a positive and significant effect on student reading achievement. In 1992, she
developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement.
This model which is called Epstein’s Framework of Parent Involvement assists
educators in developing school and family partnership programs. Epstein
introduced six types of parental involvement, namely, Parenting, Communicating,
Supporting school, Learning at home, Decision making, and Collaborating with

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Different models have been developed
for parental involvement. The Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s model of parental
involvement which includes five levels to examine parent involvement and how to
increase it in school. Parent perceptions of involvement, types of parental
involvement, student perception of the learning methods utilized by parents
during involvement, and outcome measures surrounding student achievement.

Parents play a critical role in
providing learning opportunities at home as well as linking what children learn
at school with what happens elsewhere. By participating  in  and
facilitating diverse  learning  experiences and activities  outside 
the  school,  parents 
become an  important  factor in children’s overall learning and
education (Emerson, Fear, Fox, & Sanders, 2012). Parental involvement in
school-related decisions has become a major educational issue since the 1980’s
and there is now an extensive amount of research indicating that PI is
advantageous for children of all ages (Cox 2005; Desforges & Abouchaar
2003; Eccles & Harold 1993; Epstein 2001).

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