For socialization of the child, playing and studding together, making social contacts and following social ideals and ideal standards of conduct are emphasized.
Through various programmes effort is made to cultivate desirable qualities among students, such as, proper use of time and occasion, knowledge of principles of good health, exchange of views and thoughts, patience to listen to the opposite views of others and sense of duty.
Despite much dissimilarity in the methods of teaching adopted at this stage, there are many similarities in the aims of primary education of U.S.A., which are given below:-
(1) Creation of Sociability and National spirit:
Man is a social being. Child is a part of the society. It is very necessary to develop in the child a tendency to work in accordance with society and to follow social ideals. Nation, state and associations, are social units. World is a big society.
Hence a feeling of world citizenship should be developed in the child. Primary education should impart knowledge of social rights and duties. These are the ideals of American primary education.
(2) Consciousness of Health:
Through the medium of games, sports and play-methods, primary education aims at making children healthy and creating in them awareness for good health.
(3) Development of Spirit of Freedom:
In American schools opportunities are provided to children to work freely and to understand the meaning of freedom through various special programmes. From the point of view of rights and duties exercise of freedom should be proper, desirable and unrestricted. It is impressed upon the children that co-operative spirit should be developed as a result of freedom.
(4) Harmony between Individualistic and Socialistic Ideas:
If only individualistic ideology is allowed to flourish then the child’s personality cannot adjust to modern social environment. Hence where facilities and opportunities are provided to children, they are also directed to inculcate social feelings. Individuality can develop in social setting only.
(5) Development of Self-reliance:
The primary education is so arranged that children try to fulfill their daily needs themselves and become self-dependent. Kindergarten system lays stress on self-help which is further developed at the primary stage.
Education at this stage, aims at providing opportunities to children to solve their day to day individual, domestic and social problems themselves.
(6) Development of Socialization:
Socialization is achieved by teaching social ideals. Hence, social ideals and social qualities should be developed in children in order to strengthen the idea of socialization. Children are directed to accept social ideals by imparting knowledge of reading, writing and elementary mathematics.
Social feeling is easily developed by establishing relations with other members of society. It is developed in children by various programmes through the medium of co-operation and association.
(7) Development of Creativity:
In America, with the advancement of scientific knowledge, many tools have been developed which serve as teaching aids. The use of these instruments such as audio-visual aids, by teachers or students not only entertains them but also develops creative tendencies in them.
In these schools, creativity is generally developed through the medium of documentary films, news reels, magic lanterns, photographs, radio programmes and newspapers.
Providing opportunities for acquisition and development of knowledge through lectures, debates and seminars is considered to be the main aim of education there.