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Academies:

Industrial development influenced education system since the middle of eighteenth century. So academies were established to help vocational and industrial life.

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In 1751 an academy was established in Philadelphia for the first time through the efforts of Benjamin Franklin. By 1830, the number of academies had risen to 500. Women-education, naval education, vocational education, politics, philosophy were the main subjects taught.

Public Secondary Schools:

Along with industrial, political and social development, demand for free, universal, public educational system, had begun in the beginning of the nineteenth century. In 1821 first public school, in 1926 first public girls school in Boston, and in 1924 Public School in New York, were established.

In 1847 after the judgement of Kalmanzoo case and on the basis of the report of Committee of Ten free and universal education was organised

Secondary Education Re-organisation:

Considering 8 year education at the primary level too long duration, the need of an intermediate unit arrangement between primary and secondary education, was felt. Consequently, class VII and VIII were joined with secondary classes and together with it the first two years of higher education were also added to the education of secondary level.

The secondary level was divided into Junior High School-3 years. Higher Secondary School-3 years and Junior College-2 years.

Aims of Secondary Education:

In the beginning, Latin Grammar Schools and educational academies were established in order to fulfill the needs of European religion, politics, education, literature, leadership in traditions and vocations. Later the nature of educational system changed according to the recommendations of education commissions and committees, appointed from time to time.

According to the Committee of Ten in 1892, the aim of secondary education was not only preparation for college education but also utilitarian. Study of arithmetic was suggested along with classical subjects.

In 1899, the Committee on College Requirements also supported the suggestions of the Committee of Ten. In 1912, the Secondary Education Reorganisation Commission suggested the following seven aims of secondary education: — civil education, vocational education, commands of fundamental principles, health education, worthy-home membership, ethical character and worthy use of leisure. Similarly, in 1933, 1936, 1942, 1944 and 1947 different aspects of educational aims were emphasised.

Functions of Secondary Education:

Development of knowledge and integration, probable future needs, knowledge of traditional, cultural and contemporary social duties, development of specific ability, provision of new knowledge correlated with previous knowledge, tendency of taking interest in human activities, progressive teaching methods, independent thinking and use of research principles and checking students, before diminishing returns are the main functions of secondary education.

Types of Secondary Schools and Classification:

There are two main classifications. In the first classification, the secondary stage is of 4 years (8 = 4 + 2 + 2) and in the second classification; the secondary stage is from IX to XII. In the second classification, junior high school is from VII to IX (3 years, higher secondary classes from X to XII (3 years) and the classes XIII and XIV are included in the junior college.

Junior High Schools:

In some place these classes are included in higher secondary classes and in some places, they are separate.

Higher Secondary Schools:

This is a supplementary provision for junior high schools. Classes from X to XII are included in this stage. Along with general education, provisions for vocational and industrial education and specialisation are available at this stage.

Classification of Secondary Schools according to Curriculum:

(1) Common Schools:

(a) Comprehensive Secondary Schools:

These schools are of 4 year duration. Various subjects are taught in these schools. They are free and universal. The number of subjects is about 200. They lack modern teaching methods. They are economical and convenient for rural areas.

(b) Limited Schools:

Importance to vocational and special subjects for local people. The choice of subjects is limited.

(2) Specialisation Schools:

Elementary training of vocational education is given. Compared to general, vocational education is emphasised.

Vocational and Industrial Schools:

These are established mainly in industrial and vocational centres and are similar to specialisation schools. More useful for the people.

(3) Part-time Schools:

These schools are established for education of adults who are engaged in some vocation.

(a) Continuation Schools:

Provision of teaching for about ?44 hours in a year and 3 to 4 hours teaching per week for adults.

(b) Evening Adult Schools:

Education facilities daily in the evening. Education according to the needs of the adults.

(4) Junior Colleges:

The first two years of college stage, i.e., classes XIII and XIV are included in junior colleges. Mostly they are considered a part of college education but they are organised as a part of secondary education

Secondary Education Curriculum and Educational Programme:

Teaching Programme:

Compulsory, semi-compulsory and optional subjects— three types of subjects. Semi-compulsory subjects are meant for skill in specific vocations. Optional subjects are given in groups. Students select these subjects according to interest and need.

Provision depends on the size of the school and need of the place. More subjects in cities than in rural areas. Need for selection is felt in the last year of junior high school or first year of higher secondary school.

Vocational, Cultural and Co-curricular Programmes:

Along with general education and vocational education, constructive activities, literary meetings, discussions, games, and sports, recreational and swimming programmes are arranged under the guidance of teachers for worthy citizenship.

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