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The head of the State must be an elected President. As a secular State India will not be wedded to a particular religion and no person will be discriminated against because of his or her religion. The word “Secular” was introduced in the Preamble only after the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976.

The provisions of Indian Constitution nevertheless reflect a secular spirit. A secular state has thus no state religion. The word ‘socialist’ indicates that important means of production will be transferred to public ownership.

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These will not be allowed to be concentrated in a few hands. Thirdly, the Preamble is a grand declaration of the ideals and objectives that the Indian people desire to achieve through the political edifice they have set up for themselves.

These ideals and objectives are justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. Justice is of three kinds: social, economic and political. Social justice signifies that inequalities on the social plane should not exist.

Economic justice signifies that there should be no exploitation of man by man. The words “liberty, equality and fraternity” remind us of the slogan of the French revolutionaries. Liberty implies that there should not be any undesirable restrictions on an Indian citizen. He must enjoy freedom of thought, expression, action, etc.

Equality implies that adequate opportu­nities should be provided to Indian citizen, so that he may be able to develop his capacities fully. It also implies that no section of the people be given special privileges. Fraternity means being brotherly. The use of this word in the Preamble is very significant. India is a land of many religions and communities.

The spirit of fraternity must be fostered and encouraged to make India united and stable. Lastly, the Preamble has an important bearing on the interpretation of the Constitution. It can help the judges to understand the general objects and intentions of any ambiguous provision of the Constitution or of any law which has been passed under that provision.

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