Although the Federal Government does not control education directly, but it influences the educational sphere by giving Land Grants and other financial aids through the various programmes of the Education Office.
In 1920, the Federal Government transferred the Federal assistance to the patronage of the State Governments. They help the individual and collective institutions from time to time.
During the depression period of the third decade of the current century they provided financial help to the States to overcome unemployment and also provided occupational facilities to the ex-servicemen of the army after World War II.
Encouragement Programmes of the Federal Government in Education:
The Federal Government gives Land Grants and Grants-in-aid. It itself manages the education of Red Indians and the areas under Federal administration. Helps in the training of the Government servants and co-operates in educational projects abroad.
Education office is the executive department for educational programmes. Its Chairman is the Education Commissioner. At present the work of the Education office is to prepare a report on the progress of the schools by collecting statistics from the States.
Besides this, educational reforms, execution of national plans, vocational and technical education, and organisation of education for non-European communities (Negroes and American Indians), provision of education in Columbia city, Alaska and other colonies and seeking co-operation of different departments for the States are the main functions of the Education Office.
Educational Administration of States:
Excepting Delavair State, all the states have handed over ‘educational organisation and administration to the local boards. States Governments look after the standards of education, curriculum and frame general rules of education, control on schools, fulfill educational plans and manage vocational and technical education.
State Education Boards have been established for this purpose. The Chairman is known as State Education Commissioner. County Boards, Townships and Local Boards are under him.
Local Education Administration:
Most of the schools in the States are organised by local Boards. They are independent and complete units from the administrative point of view. Central and State Governments have only a nominal control.
The number of the 3 local boards in America is about 201,000. Nine elected members constitute the Board. Its Chairman is Superintendent of Local Schools, elected ay the members. He is the Chief administrative officer. These Boards ire free to organise education according to the needs and in the interest of the people.
Democratic System of Education:
The schools in America are responsible for providing equal opportunities of education to all without distinction of colour, caste or creed. The schools, as a complete unit, change with need of the time and place.
Fundamental Tendencies of American Education:
The American system of education though different in different states is similar in some respects. These similarities are known as Fundamental Tendencies of American Education.
They are: Universal and Free education, Democratic Ideal, Stage-wise system of education, Similarity of Financial Resources, Dynamic Trend and Experimental Facilities, etc.