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Thus an attempt has been made to establish a secondary school which may be of more practical value for the children concerned. In addition to these new types of Bilateral and Comprehensive Schools, The Grammar, Public and other types of secondary schools are also quite popular.

In the Bilateral schools there are two types of secondary schools—recognised and unrecognised. These Bilateral Schools are not much different from the Grammar, Modern and Technical Modern Schools. Many Modern Secondary Schools had accepted a Grammar School curriculum. The number of such Bilateral Schools is not very large.

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In these schools students were educated for the examination of General Certificate of Education. These schools were unrecognised. In 1959, out of thirteen thousand Modern Secondary Schools only one thousand appeared for this examination.

These students were taught a mixed curriculum incorporating the essentials of the Grammar schools. From 1955, the number of Bilateral Secondary Schools recognised by Education Ministry increased, but this number was lower than that of the unrecognised schools.

These Bilateral Secondary Schools were regarded as comprehensive, but really speaking they were not so. In fact, only those schools are regarded as comprehensive which impart general education to boys and girls, according to their individual needs, interests, and capacities.

But these so called comprehensive schools did not have this feature. Some of these schools admitted either only boys or girls. Even to-day there is some guardians who like to send their wards to Grammar Schools and not to Bilateral Secondary schools, simply because they do not meet their needs.

Multilateral and Other Secondary Schools:

Besides Bilateral Secondary schools, there are many Multilateral Secondary Schools as well. They are called Multilateral, because they incorporate in their curriculum the essentials of Grammar, Modern and Technical Schools. Such schools are not well equipped, because it is difficult to organise the curricula of many types of schools in one school.

In addition to the above Bilateral and Multilateral Secondary Schools there are other types of secondary schools as well established at various places? Such schools are Intermediate Schools, Central Schools and Area or High Grade Schools. According to the Ministry Report of 1958 these schools have been classified thus. Boys and girls are admitted to these schools on merit. The curriculum of these schools is less academic than that of the Grammar School. These schools also teach combined courses of Grammar, Modern and Technical schools – the three types of curricula. In England, under some Local Education Authorities there are some other types of secondary schools as well.

These are Junior Comprehensive Schools and Higher Grade Comprehensive Schools. Junior Comprehensive Schools admit students after they have completed primary education and they are giving education upto 14 or 15 years of age.

These are called High Schools. In the Higher Grade Comprehensive Schools those boys and girls are admitted who want Further Education after having completed the course of Junior Comprehensive Schools upto the age of 14 or 15 years.

These two types of schools are regarded as good because they are able to enlist the services of well trained teachers and by studying in them the Eleven plus Examination is not considered as necessary. However, the Grammar Schools, the Modern Secondary Schools and the Technical Schools are still considered as superior to these.

The Grammar Schools:

These schools were started in the seventeenth century. They are the oldest type of secondary schools in the country. In these schools English language and literature, modern foreign languages, such as French, German, Italian, Spanish and Russian; applied and pure mathematics, chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, history, geography, art, music and carpentary are taught.

These schools prepare students for university education. Girls are taught domestic science also. Religious education is compulsory for all. Students are given practice in metal work. All these schools have provisions for health education, sports and games. For girls, lawn-tennis, basket-ball and hockey are arranged. Boys play cricket and football also.

In Grammar Schools many voluntary clubs and societies are organised. These pertain to literary debates, dramatics and other cultural programmes. There are circle- clubs like those of mountaineering, chess, French and German. These clubs and societies do not interfere in any manner with the academic activities of the schools.

They are organised after the school hours and ordinarily students are responsible for them. In the Grammar Schools some students are taught special courses for the examination of General Certificate of Education. This General Certificate is of three types—Ordinary, advanced and scholarship.

These three types have different subjects of examination. Students may appear for any of these. The minimum age for appearing in this examination is 15. On the recommendation of Head Master some students could appear for the examination of General Certificate earlier than 15 years of age.

Importance of General Certificate of Education:

By passing this examination, one is exempted from appearing at the preliminary examinations of Universities or some principal vocational organistions. But for obtaining admission in a university or in some special vocational organisation, the student should pass the General Certificate Examination in the same area in which he seeks admission. For admission, a certificate of the desired standard should also be obtained.

In a university one has to study English and 4 or 5 other subjects. So far as admission in a university is concerned one must pass the General Certificate Examination in at least two subjects. This is also applicable for determining the grant of scholarship.

Secondary Modern Schools:

The existing Senior Primary Schools of England and Wales were transformed into Secondary Modern Schools in 1945. These schools have progressed much because of the co-operation they received from the public, as they have tried to cater to the needs of children with varying capacities and aptitudes.

These schools offer both part and full-time special types of vocational courses, such as – Art and craft, home-craft, needle­work and design, practical craft, craftsmanship, mechanical trades, house maintenance and furnishing, automobile engineering, rural science, agriculture, gardening, nursing, music, seamanship, social and commercial education.

These schools prepare students for such examinations as school certificate, commercial certificate and technical certificate conducted by the Royal Society of Arts. These schools also prepare candidates for the General Certificate of Education examination. Some Secondary Modern Schools prepare candidates for such examinations as those of Armed Forces, H.M. Dock yards and Apprenticeship, Local Leaving Certificates, Northern Counties Technical Examinations.

The four types of Modern Secondary Schools may be found. These are as follows:—

(a) Modern Secondary School of General Courses:

In such schools special emphasis is placed on art, craft and social and moral activities in addition to other general courses.

(b) Modern Secondary Schools providing General and Special Education:

In these schools for the first two or three years, general education is given and afterwards students are given some special education.

(c) Modern Secondary Schools resembling Senior Primary Schools:

In such schools, the curriculum of the senior primary school was generally taught with some modifications.

(d) Modern Secondary Schools giving Advanced Education in Some Subjects:

In these schools the principal subjects are taught, but in one or two subjects, advanced educations are also given.

Now many Modern Secondary Schools have become Bilateral Comprehensive Schools.

Secondary Technical Schools:

These schools are not as popular as Grammar schools. The establishments of Bilateral and Multilateral Comprehensive Secondary schools have marred the progress of Secondary Technical Schools. Moreover, the public considers the Grammar Schools more important than Secondary Technical Schools, although the Ministry of Education has proclaimed that the children with the same intelligence quotient (I.Q) may be admitted either to Grammar or Technical Schools.

But the public sends its children to the Secondary Technical Schools only when they are not accepted in the Grammar Schools. Another factor which makes these Secondary Technical Schools less popular is that the admission age in these is 12 years whereas; in other secondary schools it is 11. Another reason for their less popularity may be that they have begun to hold their classes in Technical Colleges as well.

In these classes, technical tools meant for adults are used and their teachers are required to co-operate in expansion of adult education. Consequently, these Secondary Technical Schools have not built their own buildings and they still suffer for want of teachers. This feature has reduced their attraction for the public.

An Evaluation of Modern Secondary Schools:

Few Secondary Technical Schools have been popular. They have made no appreciable contribution in the development of Secondary Education. These schools have developed scientific and technological education upto considerable extent.

They prepare students for General Certificate of Education Examination and also for admission to Universities, Royal Society of Arts and Technical and Commercial Certificate Examinations. Students receiving education in Technical Colleges are generally graduates of Secondary Technical Schools.

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