Not only that, since every system have its own structures and substructures which function with the help of infants: with inputs, throughputs, outputs and feedbacks, so two more approaches have emerged as derivates of the systems approach.

1. Structural functional approach lays emphasis on the structures and functions of every part and subpart of a system and its functional aspect.

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2. Input output analysis lays emphasis on certain forces that come from the environment and play their part in the decision making process, while decision taken by men in authority rolled one called outputs.


System analysis was introduced due to the realization of Easton, Almond and Mortan A. Kaplan who have reacted against the traditional tendency of rigid compartmentalization of social sciences.

They have realized that unidimensional studies in social sciences have not only caused duplication, triplication and even multiplication of efforts but also impeded the patterns of a scientific analysis of creating conditions hostile to the tendency of unification of all knowledge.

They have drawn inspiration from the contribution of Ludvig Von Bartaranfy who pioneered the movement of unification of all natural sciences.

Easton’s Contribution:

Easton’s monumental work ‘A system analysis of political life’ published in 1965, set out to develop a theory that would help to explain behavioural reality in as much as political is but a symbolic system useful for understanding concrete or empirical political analysis.

Characteristics of Theory:

The empirical political theory of Easton has following characteristics:

1. Easton is for a unified theory of knowledge- same categories and propositions could be applied to all kinds of political activities.

2. Easton is concerned with the issue of survival or persistence of political system.

3. Easton is critical of equilibrium analysis that stops at the point of analyzing factor that creates stability or instability in political system.

4. Easton’s purpose is to study political system in both theoretical and applied perspective.

5. Easton aims at keeping the study of politics at an autonomous level.

6. Easton seeks to study political systems in their abstract or theoretical as well as concrete or applied aspects.

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