year, thousands of people are sued for the same thing, which they either blatantly
ignored or were unfortunately uninformed about. What they are being sued for is
copyright, a law formed back in the 1790’s. Copyright is a universal law which
was created to protect authors’ of original creations’ from being wrongly
duplicated and disturbed. It grants the authors’ exclusive ownership of their
work and legally allows them to deny others the privilege of using their works.
Copyright can be placed on anything in tangible medium such as; literary,
artistic, or musical work. The biggest example of violating a copyright is
illegally downloading and sharing copyrighted music or movies. Over the years
copyright laws have changed dramatically, because of the development of the
internet. Before the internet in order to be caught plagiarizing, someone would
have to read through all sorts of literary works, to know exactly where the
information came from. These days a person can just type what they are looking
for into search engine sites like “Google” and fine exactly what they were
looking for. With information accessed with such ease it makes it almost
effortless to plagiarize, which is why that unfortunately, some people do so
without realizing that they did.


is often defined as taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as
one’s own. Usually plagiarism is affiliated with literary works and is often
meant as quoting or paraphrasing a text from someone else without a proper bibliographic
citation, and without making it clear that is not one’s one words by the lack
of quotation marks. Depending on the style of writing, there are many ways to avoid
plagiarism, such as different ways to cite the original creator of text. Inconsequential
changes made to a paraphrasing to avoid copyright infringement is specifically
prohibited by the law in the USA.

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to the U.S. Copyright Office, “Fair use is a legal doctrine that promotes
freedom of expression by permitting the unlicensed use of copyright-protected
works in certain circumstances”. Essentially, a fair use is any copying of
copyrighted material done for a limited purposed, without obtaining the
permission from the copyright owner. For literary works, an author may make
short quotations for purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, or
teaching without first obtaining permission of the copyright owner of the
quoted work, but every quotation included the courses of the quotation and the
name of the author of the quoted text. Unfortunately, if the copyright owner
disagrees with your fair use interpretation, the dispute may have to be
resolved by a lawsuit or arbitration. If it’s not a fair use, then you are
infringing upon the rights of the copyright owner and may be liable for


thing that has been going on lately is webpage replication, which is
essentially copying the design and code for a specific webpage without
crediting the original creator. The issue with preventing such from happening
is that its little difficult to. For obvious reasons, the law cannot set any
concrete guidelines for what conditions do copyright protections kicks in,
since the law has to be flexible to cover many different cases. A certain threshold
for design, creativity, and purpose is needed to acquire copyright protection,
which makes it difficult to copyright certain webpages, such as eCommerce sites.
A webpage’s terms and conditions can be used to outline that the contents of
such webpage can be used for literary work, meaning it can be used to inspire
other designs and layouts, but not the content. Not only is the front end of a
webpage protected, but also the back end. Because of the criteria needed to be
protected by copyright infringement, one should assume they aren’t protected.  


Berne Convention is used for the protection of works and the rights for the
author. Essentially, it is based on three basic principles and it determines
the minimum protection to be granted for such work, as well as making them
available to developing countries that can make use of the works. According to
the World Intellectual Property Organization, the three basic principles state;
“Works originating in one of the Contracting States must be given the same
protection in each of the other Contracting States as the latter grants to the
works of its own nationals”, “Protection must not be conditional upon
compliance with any formality”, and “) Protection is independent of the
existence of protection in the country of origin of the work If, however, a
Contracting State provides for a longer term of protection than the minimum
prescribed by the Convention and the work ceases to be protected in the country
of origin, protection may be denied once protection in the country of origin


works of expression that are eligible for copyright protection are protected
under national copyright laws. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular
country depends on the national laws of that country; in other words, copyright
protection depends on the national laws where protection is sought.
International copyright conventions and treaties have been developed to
establish obligations for treaty member countries to adhere to, and implement
in their national laws, thus providing more certainty and understanding about
the levels of copyright protection in particular countries.


tons of people love to use pictures to convey certain messages, or even jokes.
Normally, a certain amount of image manipulation is needed so one would not
need the consent of the author to use the original image. For an image to not
breach copyright laws, the original photo would have to be no longer recognizable,
to a certain extent. And like many other tings such as literary works, images
that were manipulated can still be used even when the original content is obvious,
which is due to certain circumstances and the fair use portion of the copyright
laws. Video compilations and mixes fall into the same category. Since it’s
difficult to change videos so they don’t look like the original, it would be
best advised to credit the creator as best as possible to avoid any issues. 

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