Summary of “Transformative
Leadership: Achieving Unparalleled Excellence”            Cam Caldwell, Rolf D. Dixon, Larry A. Floyd, Joe
Chaudoin, Jonathan Post, and Gaynor Cheokas have discovered transformative
leadership. This is a fairly new style of leadership that was discovered by
these six individuals in 2011. This article summarizes transformative
leadership by identifying six different areas of leadership that are included
in their newfound style. The article summarizes the definition of
transformative leadership and the features of leadership. Defining Transformative Leadership simply does as implied; it
defines what exactly transformative leadership is. In the Features of Leadership section, six different leadership perspectives
are identified, leaders that use this type of leadership style are identified,
and ten different propositions are issued in this article that mainly focus on the
importance of the ethical aspect of transformative leadership.   Defining Transformative Leadership             Caldwell (2011) stated that transformative leadership is
defined as:                        An ethically based leadership model that
integrates a commitment to values and outcomes by optimizing the long-term
interests of stakeholders and society and honoring the moral duties owed by
organizations to their stakeholders (p. 176).              In layman’s terms, transformative leadership is a type of
leadership style focused on the values of a company/business. Essentially, the
company remains morally correct, resulting in the long-term trust of
stakeholders and society. The most important aspect of transformative
leadership is the idea of trust; the idea is that followers view a company as
ethical. Caldwell (2011) states, “it is living in the highest standards of
moral leadership that leaders merit the trust and followership of others” (p.
176). When followers trust a company, those followers will tend to commit to
the company long-term, as the definition above states.             The article discusses that leadership is mainly focused
on being excellent and ethical. This means that a leader needs to strive to be
excellent in every decision he or she makes, while also determining if these
decisions are ethical ones that will positively affect their company,
employees, and followers. Leaders that show they can perform well within the
parameter of the rules are the ones that have the potential to have the most
success, while also earning respect from their peers. Caldwell (2011) states,
“a leader’s commitment to integrity has been universally identified by
extensive leadership research as the most important element possessed by
leaders in establishing their personal credibility” (p. 176).             A transformative leader will influence their workers. In
the article, Caldwell (2011) uses a quote from Bennis and Nanus (2007) which
states that a transformative leader “commits people to action, converts
followers into leaders, and converts leaders in agents of change” (p. 176). All
three of these statements relate to change in which the transformative leader
is responsible. They need to “transform” their workers, hence the term
“transformative”. Great leaders need to be able to identify ways in which they
can uphold the morality of their company. This is done by organizing systems
that will give support to the values of their organization, while also fighting
off adversity that can slow their progress of achieving their organizational goals
and developing their workers (Caldwell, 2011, p.176). Leaders need to be able
add value to their company, instead of negatively affecting that value.             Also, in order for an organization to succeed, leaders
must make choices in their style of leadership that focus on the task/outcome
of a given situation and also provide support to the worker by relating to them
on a personal level. Without this balance, leaders can fall to one end of the
leadership spectrum, which can represent immediate failure to lead a company.
One way leaders follow this is by finding new ways to solve problems, instead
of using old habits from their past experience. If this is done, leaders can as
Caldwell (2011) states, “create this sustainable connection and raise their
performance to the level of transformative leadership”    (p. 176). In summary, leaders will sustain
their current followers, while gaining new ones, if they are able to make a
connection with them on a personal level.Features of Leaderships            In the article,
it is said that there are six different leadership styles that are compacted
into transformative leadership. These styles are transformational leadership,
charismatic leadership, level 5 leadership, principle-centered leadership,
servant leadership, and covenantal leadership. It is stated that these six
perspectives are applied in an ethical way, and the authors focus on how these
styles of leadership affect how organizations are served, how organizations
respond to change, and how organizations can benefit their consumers. Caldwell
(2011) uses a statement from Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) that states:
“transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations and is made up of
four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual
stimulation, and individualized consideration” (p. 177).            The main purpose of the four components mentioned above
is to cause employees to increase their own standards on how they develop
personally, while also positively affecting their company. Pfeffer (1998) says
it best in his statement: “it is in pursuing excellence, motivating others to
become their best, seeking the best interests of both the individual and the
organization…” (p.177). Pfeffer is essentially summarizing the four components
in this instance by stating that employees need to not only do what is best when
pursuing excellence, but they need to also find ways to benefit the
organization simultaneously.             Caldwell (2011) offers two different propositions that relate
transformative and transformational leadership. The first proposition is:
“leaders that seek to benefit individuals within their organization, the
organization itself, and society will achieve greater profitability than
leaders who are not focused on those factors” (p. 177). In this proposition,
Caldwell is stating that leaders need to care for the needs of others before
themselves to be successful. The second proposition states: “leaders who
incorporate principles of transformational leadership that benefit the
organization, its individual members, and society will be perceived as more
ethical and more trustworthy than leaders who are not perceived as
transformational” (p. 177). This proposition states that if leaders look after
the needs of others first, they will be viewed as ethical.             The next two propositions relate to charismatic
leadership, which is a form of leadership that is very relationship-oriented.
In the case of charismatic leadership, the leaders will form special bonds with
their employees. It is stated in the article that charismatic leaders can
influence people internally, thus helping the company flourish. One example of
a charismatic leader is Martin Luther King Jr. As the leader of the Civil
Rights Movement, King Jr. was able to connect with his followers on a personal
level. He showed that he cared immensely about his followers, especially during
his “I Have a Dream” speech. The third proposition by Caldwell (2011) is:
“leaders that establish relationships with employees based upon the shared
pursuit of a moral purpose achieve greater results than leaders who do not create
this personal connection” (p. 178). His fourth proposition states:
“organizations in which charismatic leaders articulate a clear and compelling
set of moral principles are more successful at creating highly committed team
members than organizations in which leaders are not as effective in articulating
those moral principles” (p. 178). In these propositions, Caldwell is stating
that it is crucial that a leader relates to his/her employees by staying on the
same plane of morality.             Propositions five and six are focused on the level 5
leadership style. This style is meant to allow a leader to use his or her personal
motivation to achieve goals in an organization that has yet to achieve those
goals. The fifth proposition from Caldwell (2011) is: “organizational leaders
who are perceived as dedicated to their organization and who put their organization
ahead of their own self-interests produce higher profits than leaders who are
perceived as lacking these qualities” (p. 179). Proposition number six states:
“organizations with leaders that give credit to others for organization
successes but assume personal responsibility for organizational failures are
more profitable long-term than organizations with leaders that do not behave in
this manner” (p. 179). Caldwell (2011) states it perfectly when he says that
the main takeaway from level 5 leadership is to “treat people fairly, give them
credit for their achievements, and support them wisely to help them to achieve
organizational greatness” (p. 179). Essentially, leaders will be quick to give
the credit to their employees, instead of taking the credit for themselves.
They will also treat their employees fairly and equally, while also giving them
all of the support they need.             Principle-centered leadership is the focus of
propositions seven and eight. This particular leadership style focuses on
values. Leaders that use this style focus on their own relationships, while
also ensuring they are honoring these relationships in order to meet the needs
of their employees. Proposition seven from Caldwell (2011) states: “leaders
whose actions are perceived as adhering to the values and principles proclaimed
that are perceived as virtuous and consistent with the best interests and
values of society produce greater financial results and higher profits than
leaders not perceived to be as congruent in their actions” (p. 179). The eighth
proposition states: “organizations with leaders who are perceived to
demonstrate a commitment to serve stakeholders are more successful in creating
wealth and value and are more profitable than organizations with leaders not
perceived to be focused on serving stakeholders” (p. 180). To summarize, these
two propositions are stating that organizations will flourish financially if
the leaders follow the values that the organization has put in place. If the
leaders lead by example in terms of following the values, the employees will
work harder and the company will benefit greatly financially.             The final two propositions are based off of servant
leadership and covenantal leadership. Servant leadership is quite unique because
leaders serve the employees, not vice versa. Leaders do this to show they are
committed to their employees’ well-being and personal growth (Caldwell, 2011,
p. 180). They have a reason for doing this; it is to ensure that the organization
succeeds in the long run (p. 180). Covenantal leadership is the style when the
leader acts as a teacher (Caldwell, 2011, p. 180). The leader’s main intention
in this particular instance is to be a role model to the employees (p. 180). He
or she wants to teach the employees new ideas as well, while continuing to set
a positive example.             Proposition nine from Caldwell (2011) states:
“organizations with leaders who establish a continuous learning culture to
create new insights about organizational meaning achieve greater profits than
organizations with leaders who do not establish that continuous learning
culture” (p. 181). To summarize, leaders that teach their employees new ideas
will create a more positive work environment. The tenth and final proposition
states: “organizations with leaders who demonstrate a high level of the
characteristics of all six perspectives of transformative leadership are more
profitable than organizations with leaders who demonstrate lower levels of these
six leadership perspectives” (p. 181). The final proposition is essentially
stating that leaders should follow the transformative leadership style, which
contains six different leadership perspectives. This proposition tells the
reader that leaders will have a higher percentage chance at being successful if
they use the transformative leadership style. My Viewpoint            Transformative leadership is a particular leadership
style that would work extremely well in many instances. This leadership style is
not merely one technique but rather is comprised of multiple components. This
style, using six different leadership techniques, gives it much more
credibility than other leadership styles. Transformative leadership is focused
on the values and morality of an organization, along with providing long-term
success. The article makes a compelling argument that values are the most
important aspect of a company’s successes. There are many different instances
where the article shows this; for example, in proposition four, it’s stated
that: “charismatic leaders articulate a clear and compelling set of moral
principles…” (Caldwell, 2011, p. 178), or in proposition seven, it’s stated that:
“leaders whose actions are perceived as adhering to the values and principles…
produce greater financial results…” (Caldwell, 2011, p. 179). As can be seen,
transformative leadership focuses on the values, which is the most important
aspect of an organization. How can my supervisor use this
information?            Every supervisor
should consider adopting the transformative leadership style as their own. This
style is clearly focused on the values, which should be viewed as the most
important part of a company. If supervisors/managers can show that they follow
and adhere to the company values, the employees will follow their lead.
Employees will see how the leader acts and they will want to model that
behavior. A supervisor should use this information by simply evaluating their
own leadership style and deciding how they can incorporate various components
in order to fully maximize their leadership potential. Or, if possible, they
should try and adopt the transformative leadership style altogether. To be a
successful leader, one must focus on his or her relationships with their
employees and not solely on the required tasks. One way to ensure that a leader
can do this is by utilizing the transformative leadership style. This is the
ideal leadership style because it focuses on company values, but it also does
not neglect the tasks the company must complete. If a leader wants to become a
highly effective leader, he or she should use the transformative leadership
style. Conclusion            In conclusion, the transformative leadership style seems
to be the most complete style that is offered to leaders. It is a combination
of six different styles which are: transformational leadership, charismatic
leadership, level 5 leadership, principle-centered leadership, servant
leadership, and covenantal leadership. Since transformative leadership contains
so many different styles, it is able to include several different aspects of
leadership. Also, this type of leadership style focuses on values, not simply
on completing the company tasks. Leaders who use this style are focused on the
values of the organization, their relationships with employees, the development
of employees, and the tasks that need to be completed. Even though they are
focused on completing company tasks, they still view values and their employees
as more important. Transformative leadership is the most complete leadership
style because it focuses on the values of an organization, it combines six
different leadership styles, it ensures that relationships with employees are
positive, and it also simultaneously focuses on completing the required tasks.        


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