Face recognition is a common task to humans, every day they perform this
task but does not get notice about it that how many times they have performed
it in a day. In 1960’s the scientists conducted the research on automated face
recognition, but at that time it caught attention only to the scientific
community. Nowadays, face recognition has caught so much attention to the
researchers as well as common users. Now it is commercially implemented at
every place. Thousands of researchers are doing research on this interesting
topic. Many face analysis and face modeling techniques have progressed
significantly in the last decade 30. However, the reliability of face
recognition schemes still poses a great challenge to the scientific community.
Falsification of identity cards or intrusion of physical and virtual
areas by cracking alphanumerical passwords appears frequently in the media.
These problems of modern society have triggered a real necessity for reliable,
user-friendly and widely acceptable control mechanisms for the identification
and verification of the individual.
Besides face recognition, Biometrics is also a technique to identify an
individual person. But biometrics is based on authentication on the intrinsic
aspects of a specific human being. It appears as an alternative to traditional techniques
(such as PIN codes or passwords) for authentication. Fingerprint recognition is
the oldest biometric technique. This technique was used in China as early as
700 AD for official certification of contracts. Later on, in the middle of the
19th century, it was used for identification of persons in Europe
31. Iris recognition 17 is the latest developed biometric technique. This
technique is now used instead of passport identification for frequent flyers in
some airports in United Kingdom, Canada and the Netherlands. These techniques
are inconvenient due to the necessity of interaction with the individual who is
to be identified or authenticated. Face recognition on the other hand can be a
non-intrusive technique. This is one of the reasons why this technique has
caught an increased interest from the scientific community in the recent decade.
According to research findings, facial recognition has several advantages over other biometric
techniques. It is natural, non-intrusive and easy to use. Face recognition system does not need the human interaction with the
installed system. In a study considering the
compatibility of six biometric techniques (face, finger, hand, voice, eye,
signature) with machine readable travel documents (MRTD) 32 facial features
scored the highest percentage of compatibility, see Figure 1.1. In this study
parameters like the enrollment, renewal, machine requirements and public
perception were considered. However, facial features should not be considered
the most reliable biometric.