For centuries, there have been taboos against weapons, yet the utilization of toxic gas inWorld War I prompted the first international agreement – the 1925 Geneva Protocol –banningasphyxiating, poisonous and other gases techniques of warfare. Back to World War I, on April22, 1915, a lot of chlorine were discharged by German military powers at Ypres, Belgium. Thiswas the start of chemical weapons in fighting. Around the 1970s of the twentieth century, theattention to the risk by chemical and biological operators had been for the most part kept to themilitary sector.The term “Weapons of Mass Destruction,” is used to incorporate chemical, andbiological weapons, which is misdirecting, politically hazardous, and can’t be advocated on thegrounds of military efficiency.After World War I, the international community had banned the use of chemical andbiological weapons. The ban has been reinforced in 1972 and 1993 by prohibiting thedevelopment, production, and exchange of the weapons. The Biological Weapons Convention(BWC), is the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production and stockpiling of anentire category of weapons of mass destruction. By speaking to a worldwide will and building upa global standard, the BWC has built confidence and deflected nations from obtaining naturalweapons for over 30 years. The present advances in life sciences and biotechnology, as well aschanges in the security condition, have expanded worry and concern that long-standinglimitations on the utilization of chemical and biological weapons might be overlooked ordisintegrated.On 29 April 1997, the organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)was formally established.Currently, 189 nations have joined the CWC which represents 98% ofthe global population. Its mission is to implement the provisions of the CWC, and to affordDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017protection and support against chemical weapons; to strengthen international cooperation in thepeaceful uses of chemistry, and to achieve universal membership of the OPCW.Definition of Key TermsWarfare:The activity of fighting and battling a war, usually including weapons.Weapons of Mass Destruction:Nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical or other weapons that can murder and conveycritical mischief to an expansive number of people or do massive damage to human-madestructures, for example, buildings, and natural structures like mountains, or the biosphere.Biological weapons:A nuclear weapon utilizes a microbes or infection, or sometimes poisons that comestraightforwardly from bacteria, to kill individuals. An advanced natural weapon would use astrain of bacteria or a virus that would slaughter a large number of individuals.Chemical Weapons:A weapon that uses a fabricated concoction and chemical to murder individuals. Theprimary chemical weapon used adequately in wars was chlorine gas, which consumes andobliterates lung tissue.Geneva Protocol:A treaty that restricts the utilization of biological and chemical weapons in fighting. It wasmarked at Geneva on 17 June 1925 and went into compelling on 8 February 1928. Moreover, itis a protocol for the preclusion of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or different Gases,and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare.Background InformationThe use of chemical weapons and chemical warfare records back thousands of years,with advanced forms presented in the manner of poisoned weapons and arrows. Techniques inchemical warfare have since improved and now in modern day circumstances is mostcommonly noticed in the form of gas warfare. Chemical weapons and biological weaponsDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017inevitably differ in the sense that chemical weapons require the use of chemicals and biologicalweapons involve the use of bacteria, diseases, fungi, and viruses. Both are specialized forms ofmunitions used in modern-day warfare.Geneva ProtocolIn 1925 Geneva Protocol was signed, it prohibited and restricted the use of chemicalweapons in warfare, as a result of public outrage. The Protocol had some critical deficiencies,including the way that it did not prohibit the improvement, stockpiling or production of chemicalweapons. Likewise bad was the idea that many States that ratified the Protocol maintainedwhatever authority is needed to utilize prohibited weapons against States that were not a partyto the Protocol or as retaliation in kind if chemical weapons were used against them. Toxic andpoison gasses were utilized during World War II in Nazi concentration camps and Asia, althoughchemical weapons were not used on European battlefields.Major Countries and Organizations InvolvedChinaChina states that it is in agreement with its BWC duties and that it has never had anactive BW program. As indicated by the United States, China’s BW activities have beenextensive, and a 1993 State Department Compliance Report guaranteed that operationscontinued after China joined the BWC. The 2010 report demonstrates that little data is knownabout China’s activities and that recent dual-use activities may have breached the BWC. Theexisting framework would enable it to develop, produce, and weaponize specialists. The 2017report does not examine China’s BWC consistence or resistance. Also, China states that itcomplies with the CWC. China pronounced in 1997 that it had a little offensive CW program thathas now been destroyed, which has been verified by more than 400 assessments by the OPCWas of 2016.RussiaRussia involved the world’s most significant chemical weapons stockpile. Almost 40,000metric vast amounts of chemical agent, including VX, soman, sarin, mustard, lewisite, mustard-lewisite mixtures, and phosgene. Russia has announced this to the OPCW and commenceddestruction. Alongside the United States, Russia got an augmentation when it was not able toDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017complete removal by the 2012 due date forced by the CWC. A 2016 OPCW report showed thatstarting at 2015, Russia had destroyed around 92% of its stockpile (around 36,7500 metrictons). On September 27, 2017, the OPCW reported that Russia finished the destruction of itschemical weapons armory.North KoreaIt is concluded that North Korea has possession of a vast number of chemical weapons.The country has not declared any of its research and development regarding biologicalweapons, although has consented both the Geneva Protocol and the BWC. However, NorthKorea has yet to agree to the CWC.The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) is a legally mandatory treaty that bansbiological arms. After being to being negotiated and consulted in the United Nations’disarmament forum beginning in 1969, the BWC opened for signature on April 10, 1972, andentered into force on March 26, 1975. It as of now hosts 179 states-parties and 6 signatories,and 11 states have neither signed nor approved the BWC.The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)The Convention strives to eliminate a whole area of weapons of mass destruction bybanning the development, creation, acquisition, storing, maintenance, exchange or utilization ofchemical weapons by States Parties. States Parties, in turn, must take the essential actions toenforce that prohibition regarding people within their field and control.Timeline of EventsDate Description of eventApril 22, 1915 In WW1, it was the start of chemical weapons in warfare.4 May-17 June 1925 Signing the Geneva Protocol that prohibits the use of chemicaland biological weapons in war.April 10, 1972 Prohibiting the development, production, and exchange ofbiological weapons (BWC).Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017April 29th,1997 On April 29th, 1997, Chemical Weapons Convention is put intoeffect with the birth of OPCW (Organization for the Prohibitionof Chemical Weapons).August 21st, 2013 Rockets containing sarin nerve gas are fired at civilian urbanareas in Damascus, Syria by the Syrian Military. This resulted in1,429 deaths and 2,200 people injured including 426 children.October 21-27, 2016 The terrorist group IS uses sulfur gas near Mosul, Iraq oncivilians and soldiers, which resulted in 2 casualties and 1,500injuries.Relevant UN Treaties and Events• December5,2016(A/RES/71/87)• December2,2014(A/RES/69/82)• December2,2014(A/RES/69/67)• December5,2016(A/RES/71/69)• May4-June17(GenevaProtocol)Previous Attempts to solve the IssueThe international community has made two treaties: BWC (Biological WeaponsConvention) and the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention). One was made by UNODA(United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs) while the other was made by OPCW(Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons).The BWC prevents the development, regulation, and production of biological weapons.Then, the UNODA held conferences every 5 years with the goal of reviewing BWC to developand keep it up to date. These were called the Second Review Conference (1986), Third ReviewConference (1991), and so on. Then in 1991, the Ad Hoc Group was formed in order devisesolutions to strengthen the BWC. This group was composed of “experts” in this field of the case.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Eventually, in the Seventh Review Conference (2011), the BWC made The Final Declaration inwhich it prohibited all uses of biological weapons unless it is for peaceful purposes; memberstates will condemn any forms of usage that deviates from this purpose.In 1997, a peaceful organization to ban the uses or production of chemical weapons wasestablished: OPCW. With the birth of this organization, the CWC went into effect on April 29th,1997. The CWC is similar to BWC, except more countries signed this treaty. All member statesexcept for Egypt, North Korea, Israel, and South Sudan signed this treaty. Like BWC, it bans theproduction, usage, delivery, hoarding, and possession of chemical weapons. Also, CWC allowssuch chemicals only when they are used as peaceful means, another similarity with itspredecessor.Possible SolutionsThere have just been efforts made by the international society to resolve this issue, forinstance, the BWC and CWC that keep states from utilizing chemical or biological weapons.New solutions to this issue must be taken into action. It is difficult to ban or prevent all countriesand states from using biological and chemical weapons during warfare. Instead, regularinspections must be undertaken to put an end to their use of biological and chemical weapons.One conceivable technique is utilized drones for air surveillance over the territoriesdominated by terrorists to destroy such weapons. Another conceivable measure for observingwould be to utilize the UN peacekeepers that are dispatched to nations assigned by the SecurityCouncil. Representatives can “suggest” the Security Council to develop another peacekeepingsystem or program with a particular purpose of eliminating and preventing chemical weaponry inquestioned districts. If another peacekeeping troop were to be marshaled, the huge participationof the member states would be required in choosing which nations will contribute by sendingtheir soldiers.Dhahran Ahliyya

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