The number of local boards is more than 201,000. They are of four types—Basic, Intermediate, Coterminous and Non- Coterminous. We cannot assign definite groups to these forms; the classification is based on their characteristic features. ‘Basic’ administrative units are influenced by the local people and even to-day they are working on the same lines.
‘Intermediate’ units have both local and Government influence. ‘Coterminous’ units have only the Government influence. ‘Coterminous’ unit have only the Government influence and ‘Non-Coterminous’ units are, under neither ‘ local nor Governmental influence. They are entirely independent.
Functions of Local Education Board:
Superintendent of Education is the administrative officer of the Local Board. The function of the Board is neither executive nor administrative but it is simply Legilative. The Education Board formulates education policy, examines the progress of the students and evaluates their work.
In fact, the main function of the Board is to coordinate the facilities and needs of teachers, local population, classes and groups according to the interest, needs and traditions of the place and at the same time to preserve its freedom while achieving national goals and following State directions.
From time to time Local Boards organise conferences to which Educationists and honourable citizens are invited. Members of the School Boards are also invited and are consulted on educational projects proposed by the State and on State Educational Policy.
Thus the views of the local people are also ascertained. The Local Boards execute those programmes that are accepted by the State Boards of Education after the consent of the members participating in the conferences.
Members of the Local Boards thus formulate educational policies and programmes. The members are the recognized representatives of the people.
Selection of Members, their Qualification and Term:
Local Boards are constituted by member selected in various ways. In some States they are selected on the basis of popular votes and in other States, they are selected by local Administrative Boards, not connected with education.
In States where the State Government conducts the educational affairs they are nominated by the Education Commissioner of the County Board. In some States the members of the Local Boards are nominated by the members of the Municipal Boards or the Executive Committees of Corporations or the Chairman of the Municipal Boards or the Mayor.
The number of members is determined according to the dimension of educational area but it is not definite in any State. However, the number does not exceed 9. Their term also is not definite. Mostly it is from five to seven years.
While nominating or electing the members, care is taken to see that the representation of any particular political party or group or social institution is not overwhelming.
There is no prescribed qualification for the members of Local Education Boards. Any person who is a citizen of the State, lives within the jurisdiction of the State and has public support, may be elected as member of the Board.
But from the point of view of an ideal selection, it is seen that only a person who is educated, interested in educational programmes, is one of the guardians of students, anxious for social and educational development, a man of good character, capable of participating in public welfare work, able to give original ideas on education development and pays tax to the Government, is elected to the Board as a member.