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Genetic engineering, otherwise called genetic modification, is the direct control of DNA to alter a living being’s attributes (phenotype) in a specific manner.  An organism that is produced through genetic modification is defined as a genetically modified organism or a GMO. The first genetically modified organism was a bacterium which was created by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Moreover, in 1976 the first company to focus on genetic engineering, Genentech, was founded and started the production of human proteins. Insulin, a hormone that regulates sugar metabolism, was first produced in the 1920s by scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best(ari.aynrand.org). They had found that insulin was the hormone that diabetics needed, and they made sense of an approach to reap insulin from animal pancreases. Could it be that with the help of genetic engineering we will soon find the cure for Type 1 diabetes?According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, 3 million Americans suffer from type 1 diabetes (JDRF). Until the 1980s, people all over the world depended on insulin from pigs and cows–porcine and bovine– for their diabetes. However, these two types of insulin were not completely compatible with human insulin, and as a result some people reacted poorly to it. Scientists had developed a solution for type 1 diabetes but had not yet found a way to produce sizeable amounts of it. In 1978, Genetically engineered human insulin was produced by utilizing a new technology that would hopefully produce unlimited amount of human insulin by controlling the power of tiny microorganisms. People had used bacteria to enhance their lives from a long time ago. For instance, people used bacteria to change milk into cheese, and yeast to produce bread and beer. In other words, bacteria have served as an essential part of human life. They are especially good at taking in one substance as food and turning it into another substance as waste. This allowed scientists to discover how to get bacteria to produce medicine by changing them on the genetic level. In other words, they noticed that inside bacteria, tiny rings of genes called “plasmids” determine what substances the bacteria will produce. Plasmids can replicate independently of the chromosomes.”By splicing in the chemical sequence of human insulin and then inserting this modified plasmid into an E. Coli bacteria, scientists created a tiny insulin factory- one that multiplied when fed, creating many more of these factories until a veritable river of insulin could be produced”(ari.aynrand.org). This new innovation diminished a significant number of the dangers that accompanied creating animal insulin. Presently, individuals who had terrible responses to the animal insulin could get treated with human insulin, and there was never again the risk of coming up short on insulin on account of the speed and affordability at which we could now deliver it. Furthermore, on December 13, 2016, the University of Oregon expressed the discovery of a newfound bacterial protein created in the zebrafish gut that triggers insulin-creating beta cells of the pancreas to increase amid early larval advancement.This exploration can possibly have human wellbeing implications. The discoveries, which could one day prompt new diabetic medications, accentuates the vital part of bacteria in the advancement of the pancreas (Sciencedaily). Perceiving how the microbiota, the microorganisms of a specific habitat, determine the advancement of beta cells, which are lacked in patients with Type 1 diabetes, in the end could prompt new diagnostic and preclusion treatments of this illness. Utilizing germ-free zebrafish as a model, lead creator and doctoral student Jennifer Hampton Hill investigated the likelihood that specific gut microbes are vital for the pancreas to surround itself with a solid number of beta cells amid development. She found that, during the first seven days of life, germ-free fish did not experience an indistinguishable development from traditionally nurtured fish. Nevertheless, uncovering the germ-free fish to particular microbes reestablished the beta cell mass to normal levels(Sciencedaily). This reclamation turned into the reason for her hunt and extreme disclosure of a novel bacterial protein that all alone could animate the development of insulin-producing cells. This portrays that microscopic organisms conduct a procedure that is so fundamental to homeostasis. This is a new ideology that the microbiome could be a hotspot for signals for the improvement of the pancreas(Sciencedaily). UO scholar Karen Guillemin and associates have created techniques for developing germ-free zebrafish which in the long run enables them to ask what happens when the creatures develop without the presence of bacteria.Guillemin and Hampton Hill said that low-diversity microbiomes are less capable of stimulating beta cells expansion early in life which leave children with minimal support if their immune system is attacked. Guillemin said that a ramification of the study is the significance of promoting healthy microbiome improvement in children. For instance, this could be done by promoting breastfeeding and avoiding excessive use of antibiotics. Additional research is needed to recognize the mechanism by which BefA proteins, Beta Cell Expansion Factor A, affect beta cell development and whether the proteins have as similar impact different creatures, including humans, explained Guillemin. “Ultimately we’d like to team up with researchers studying Type 1 diabetes to look at developing BefA-related molecules as potential therapeutics.” This might be a turning point for Type 1 diabetics due to the fact that we could potentially have a treatment for this disease that affects millions of people every year.

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