S.J. (2003) consider 15 pairs of Muslims and non-Muslims in India, Malaysia,
the Philippines, and Thailand to evaluate infant and child mortality related
with male headed household in Muslims society. They found weak association in
between child mortality and women autonomy. Caldwell (1986) noted that developing
countries more specifically in Muslims societies are higher rates of child
mortality based on the Koranic injection for men to
protect their womenfolk.

mainly focus on unmet need for contraception, encouraging the child bearing,
higher fertility are the reason

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Another work relevant to my study in Bangladesh district on urban
and rural areas of Rajshahi used multivariate technique investigate the effect
of demographic, health and socioeconomic variable on child mortality. They
found a strong relationship in between immunization (78% lower), ever
breastfeeding, prenatal care of the mother, mother’s age at birth and birth
interval (57.7% lower after 36 month gap)  on neonatal, post-neonatal and on child
mortality. They found a significant relationship between father occupation at
post-neonatal periods and finally conclude that female education and public
health facilities reducing the risk of infant and child mortality Mondal, et
al, 2009, Puffer and Serrano, 1973.

Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) supported by WHO and UNICE F to reduce
under-5 child mortality in Bangladesh in mid-1990s from diarrhea, pneumonia,
malaria, and malnutrition. After the successful implementation of this program
child mortality gradually decreased with the improvement of health workers
skills, health-system support, family and community practices in other words another
Jones, et al, 2003.

collaborative research project coordinated by Pan American Health Organization
selected 15 areas, I from US, I from Canada, and other from Latin America,
35,095 deaths of children are studies on the basis of nutritional deficiency,
mainly focuses as vast literature on low birth weight. They found low birth
weight as   most savior health outcome
variable contributing to early child mortality. More than ½ of the children
died associated with immaturity and nutritional deficiency. Mortality in a
peaked in infancy if nutritional deficiency relate with 3rd or 4th
month.Puffer and Serrano, 1973

Butler, et al, 1972 Cigarette smoking
during pregnancy in a British population increased late fatal and neonatal
mortality rate by 28% and reduced birth weight by 170 gram.

Godfrey, et al, 2000 many of the
recent research suggest that many of the diseases in later life originated in
impaired intra

Godfrey, K.M., and Barker, D.J.
(2000) they validated previous research studies several major diseases of later
life, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and type2 diabetes
originated during consequences of “programming” during  intrauterine growth and development in later
life. Roseboom, Rooji and Painter (2006)

Godfrey, K.M., and Barker, D.J. (2000) cardiovascular disease is linked to fetal growth
restriction rather than to premature birth

Roseboom, Rooji and Painter (2006) Most popular Dutch famine is a unique counterpart of animal
models to explain the effects of restricted fetal growth restriction
during different stages of gestation and higher risk of disease liability in
later life outcome, especially early gestation periods.

Martorell, R (1999) Survivors malnutrition
during utero exposure in developing countries is highly associated with
syndrome of developmental impairment in later life specially in early three
years of life  and increased morbidity
and mortality.

Zinaman, M. J, et al (1996) did
experimental prospective study of 200 couples on 12 menstrual cycles who have a
desired of conception. Phase 1 consider first three cycles, phase II next nine
cycles. They found eighty-two percent couples conceived during study period and the maximum fertility rate was approximately 30% per
cycle in the first two cycles.  In
final conclusion they remarked a very significant number of women have a
chances of pregnancy termination if they missed mensus before conceived.

In another study they examined the
relationship between macronutrient exposures in early utero on development of
glucose intolerance on 1698 pregnant women and examine the dietary intake
during second trimester. They found adding of 100kcal from carbohydrates in
diet 12% decrease in risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a 9% decrease
in risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). They
found a significant association between increased fat intake and the
development of glucose abnormalities in pregnancy. Saldana, T. M, et al (2004)

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