Going further in-depth to
understand youth transgression, strengths and weaknesses, and comparing and
contrasting between all three theories is necessary. It is important to know that Control Theory
views that everyone has the potential to become delinquent. Control Theory explains that there are
inverse correlations between these factors and committing deviance. This can be viewed as a strength because
individuals without control, defy moral codes because their attachments to
society is weak. Self-control is the
concept around all of the known facts about crimes. The theories strengths are looking at the
pressures and containments of the individual such as outer or social, pressures
and pulls, external and internal containments, and inner pushes. Other theories pay an insignificant amount of
consideration to facts about the nature of crimes. Crimes can be explained as being committed in
the pursuit of desires and the escaping of pain. The downside to this theory is that because
of all of these factors, everyone has the potential to become delinquent and
criminal. Through the lack of
self-control, it does not mean that an individual will become deviant, it is
neither an adequate or a necessary condition for crime to occur. The lack of self-concept will only provide
situations that will form conditions favorable for delinquency.
Theory has more weaknesses than strengths described. I believe that this particular theory doesn’t
have any strengths and causes more harm than good. The major point to this theory is that all
people break the rules and engage in deviance at some point, but only some
individuals receive the label as deviant.
Labeling Theory highlights that rule breaking does not create a deviant,
but is created through a political process.
Higher groups have the power to classify others as deviant. When these higher powers enforce the label,
they are then forcing rule breakers or norm violators to view themselves as
deviant and become that role. In
conclusion to this, labeling someone as deviant and then accepting that role,
will then influence them to associate with other deviants, which in turn
reinforces his/her deviance career.
Anomie Theory’s strengths are focusing on the cultural conflicts and institutions,
it does not ultimately focus on the individual level. Not every individual that is placed in these
cultural conflicts reacts the same, but Anomie Theory allows for the variation
of reactions at the individual level.
The weaknesses of this theory are the neglections of psychological
processes determining the individual’s responses. The social structures of means and goals, are
only, but an influence to the deviant behavior.
For individuals, you need opportunities available of legitimate institutional
means to attain culturally valued goals.
Along with this, through the strains of society, alterative values
develop. If an individual is achieving
economic success and personal reputation through criminal behaviors, then they
will switch to these options instead of school, and legal options or occupations. Strengths of Anomie Theory is that it
recognizes that the social structures and institutions of society are
disorganized. This social
disorganization leads to confusion and anomie leading to an increased delinquent
behavior. When there is disorganization,
social factors and the environment become unstable. Juveniles struggle to resist temptation if
their social factors are unstable and control the delinquency urge. Social disorganization is related to social
class, more so low-income communities, neighborhoods, and families.
differences between Control and Labeling Theory is that within Control Theory,
delinquency is the result of poor self-concepts. Anomie can also be placed within this structure
and go against Labeling Theory because it is widely based on the labels given
from a higher power. Labeling Theory
focuses on the social and political processes.
The purpose of this is to deprive individuals of their self-image and
dignity, in order to create them into accepting of external controls, pulls,
pressures, and restraints. In the end,
labels are influencing youth crime in contemporary society today.
While Control and Anomie Theory goes against Labeling Theory, they can
compare with each other. Anomie fits
within Control Theories of delinquency.
There is a lack of significant attachments to social institutions
(family, school, religion) that increases delinquency. Economic instability and social pathology lead
to conflicting morals and values that oppose to traditional forces of social controls. Social factors (disorganization) also impacts
and weakens the social controls on the behaviors and actions of deviance. Delinquency is to be expected of most
juveniles who are exposed to it, considering all of the pressures and
inducements towards these behaviors. It
is the result of an absence of a working controlled mechanism.